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falank Book Manufacturers. 

PublisUed aiontlUy, at aos Broad-way, ±oi- Sl.OO per "Toai- 

nd Proprietor. 


VOL. III. NO. 6. 



<>eor(;e sti.iipson, 

15 BroBdway, (Room 70), New Torb. 



L. SPRAOUE, Peinoipal. 






(ird and Pen FlouriBliing, 


How to Succeed in fiusiness. 

Delivered by Prof. 

(iDd.) Couimorc 


Wbat will my henrers give to know how 
to succeed in business, or to become wealthy 
and respected? Now I will not say that the 
following rules will enable every person who 
may hear them, to acquire wealth, but this I 
will say: that if evor a man does grow rich 
by honest means, and retains his wealth for 
any length of time, he must follow and 
practice the principles kid down in the fol- 
lowing remarks ; and I strongly commend 
them to the attention of every young man, 
OS affording the true secret of success in at- 
taining wealth and honor. Although wealth 
often appears the result of mere accident, or 
a fortunate ocourrenoe of favorable circum- 
stances, without any exertion of skill or fore- 
sight, yet every man of sound health and un- 
impaired mind may become wealthy, if he 
takes the proper steps. Foremost in the list 

of requisites are honesty and strict integrity 
in every tronsaction of life. Let a man have 
the reputation of being fair and upright in 
his dealings, and he will possess the confi- 
dence of all who know him. Without these 
qualities, every other merit will prove un- 
availing. Why then is honesty the best pol- 
icy ? Because without it, I venture to say, 
that you will get a bad name, and everybody 
will shun you in business affairs, or dealings 
of any kind, and a character for knavery and 
deceit, will prove an insurmountable obstacle 
to success in almost every undertaking. 
Needy men are apt to deviate from the rule 
of honesty and integrity, under the plea that 
necessity knows no law. This course is 
suicidal by destroying all confidence, and 
ever keeps them in poverty, although they 
may possess every other quality necessary to 
success. PunctuaUty, which is said to be the 
soul of business is another important element 
in money getting. Tbe man known to be 
very exact in the fulfilment of hia engfige- 
ments gains the confidence of all. There- 
fore be prompt in all your promises and en- 
gagements and you will be trusted without 
limit. Order and system in the maaagement 
of business must not be neglected, Have a 
place for everything, and everything in its 
place: a time for everything, and everything 
in its time. Do first what presses, or is 
needed most, and having determined what is 
to be done, and how to do it, lose no time 
in doing it. Without this method all wilj 
be hurry and confusion, and nothing ac- 
complished with despatch. Next, a polite, 
affable deportment is recommended. Agree- 
able manners contribute greatly to a man's 
Be gentlemanly, kind, obliging and 

conciliating : 

1 thee 


business, or why some are successful and 
others unfortunate in business. A man with 
a pleasant disposition fi^nds friends every- 
where, and makes friends where persons of 
a contrary nature make and find enemies. 
Good nature is one of the sweetest gifts of 
Providence, and should be carefully culti- 
vated. We are now to consider a very im- 
portant principle in the business of money- 
getting, indefatigable attention to business. 
Persevering diligence is the philosopher's 
stone, which turns everything into gold. 

Constant, regular, habitual and systematic 
apphcation to business, must, in time, if 
properly directed, produce the desired results. 
It must lead to wealth, as sure as idleness, 
inattention to business, intemperance and 
gambling, lead to poverty and wretchedness. 
It has been truly said, that he who follows 
these instead of his Imsiness, will soon have 
no business to follow. Next, the art of 
money-saving is an important part of money- 
getting. Without economy and fnigality, no 
one can become rich. With them , few 
would be poor. Those who consume as fast 
as they produce, are on the road to ruin. 

As most of the poverty we see, grows out 
of idleness and extravagance, so most large 
fortunes have been acquired by iudustry and 
frugality. The practice of economy is neces- 
sary in the expenditure of time as of money. 
They say that if we take care of the pennies, 
the dollars will take care of themselves. So 
if we take care of the minutes and hours, the 
days and months will take care of themselves. 
The acquisition of wealth demands as much 
self denial and as many sacrifices of present 
pleasures as the practice of virtun itaelf. 

Men fail of fortune often because they are 
unwilling to deny themselves momentary en- 
joyments for the sake of permanent happiness 
in the future. Lastly, stick to the business in 
which you are regularly employed. Let 
speculators make their thousands in a day or 
a year, you should be engaged only in your 
own regular trade or business. Never turn 
to the right baud or the left. Your own 
business you probably understand as well as 
other men, other people's business you prob- 
ably do not understand. Therefore it is better 
to have nothing to do with it. Let your busi- 
ness be some one which is useful to the com- 
munity. All such occupations possess the ele- 
ment of profit in themselves. Ltt it be deeply 
impressed on your mind, how perilous is false- 
hot i ; when once concealment or deceit has 
beeu practiced in matters where all should 
be iiir and open as the day ; confidence can 
ueviT be restored auy more than you cau re- 
store life in the dead. How true is this, and 
what a sadly neglected truth? Falsehood is 
not only one of the most humiliating vices, 
but sooner or later, it is certain to lead to 
serious crimes. With partners in trade, with 
pficiutrs in life, v.-ith friends, employers, and 
with all by whom we are confided in bow 
essential that all guile and hypocrisy should 
be guarded against. How many young men's 
hopes have been crushed by one false step, 
which having been taken can never be re- 
traced — Fo7-t Wa^ne Omettc. 

! deserving of 
. point made 
next Conven- 

" Barring all Transcendentalism" and 
"Long- Winded Documents." 

Editor PfnmanS Art Journal: 

In the May issue of your valuable paper, 
my attention has been called to the recent 
action of the officers and executive com- 
mittee, with reference to the ensuing Conven- 
tion, to be held at Cleveland on the 5th of 
August. It is highly gratifying, no doubt, to 
all lovers of practical education, to learn that 
the interest in the new department of educa- 
tion is becoming so general, and that so early 
a movement is being made to secure a large 

In looking over the report of "ye editor 
in pursuit of an item." and of the letter of 
the Chairman of the Executive Committee, I 
observe a few points which a: 
notice. One vei-y prominei 
was the gratifying fact that on 
tion is not to be iufiicted with "long-winded 
documents," poems, and the like— gratifying, 
I say, to all members, unless possibly those 
who, at some little expenditure of time and 
effort, prepared these essoye. It is not im- 
probable that after repeated urging to prepare 
these papers, which were faithfully done, 
they may regard this want of appreciation a 
rather poor requital of honest efforts, sopho- 
more though they may have been. It is still 
fresh in the memory of many how near these 
" long-winded documents," so-called, came 
near being deca])itated without judge or jury. 
It is noticeable, however, that the member 
who moved, and the member who seconded, 
to slaughter these innocents, were not among 
those who were to contribute to the sacrifice. 
Now, "ye editor" will not, of course, take 
offence at "ye" report, because I believe 
that it breathes the real spirit of the meeting 
recently held at Philadelphia. 

But there is, I notice, a still more remarka- 
ble feature in connection with that meeting, 
as set forth by the encychcal from the Chair- 
mHn of the Executive Committee. In the 

main, it is a good document, (I will not call 
it "long-winded") and full of hfe and worthy 
intent. Eetainiug vividly in mind an incident 
in the last Convention, our worthy Chairman 
could not forego the opportunity to make a 
■sportive fling at your correspondent. This I 
do not lay to heart, obser\-e, but I could 
hardly beheve that a Committee, representing 
a Business College Teachers' and Penman's 
Convention, was really attempting to strike 
down "free speech! " Our worthy Chairman 
says : " Barring all t/raiiscendcntalufm, what 
substantial facts can you present to the next 
Convention." Now, this word of reproach, 
among small philosophers, was incidentally 
introduced by your correspondent in his 
"long-winded document," and he has not for- 
gotten the attack made upon him, simply 
because of its use. I doubt if our Chairman 
of the Executive Committee is quite pre- 
pared to take the logical sequence of his 
position. Perhaps, with his conception of 
the word, he should be excused in his attempt 
at "barring transcendentalism." Possibly, 
his notion of it is not unlike that of the 
gentleman who, while journeying on the deck 
of a Mississippi stcmucr, defined it to his 
fellow passengers thus : " See the holes made 
in the bank yonder by the swallows. Take 
away the bank and leave the apertures, and 
this is transcendeutahsm." Now, your cor- 
respondent, "ye editor," protests at any 
sand-bank -swallow-hole theory of transcen- 
dentalism. To me it is the science of self- 
evident, axiomatic, neccMary trut/is, which is 
backed by the most robust philosophers of 
the world, among whom are Coleridge, Words- 
worth, Mansel, Sir William Hamilton, Leib- 
nitz, Kant and Lolze — men who have never 
been heard to "sing the wooden songs of 
materialism." Why, the grandest pillar in 
the temple of Christianity to-day is a tru» 
transcendental philosophy. Most theologians, 
too, of to-day — and our worthy Chairman I 
understand is one— are basing their : 
in these very axiomatic truths which t 
dentalism teaches. WiUingly do they go 
back to Aristotle, Hegel and Eant, in defence 
of truths that transcend experience, for that 
is all that is meant by this philosophy. Why, 
all of our necessary, self-evident, axiomatic 
truths have a transcendental origin. All such 
truths transcend experience. That every 
effect has a cause, and that, things equal to tht 
saine thing are equal to each ot/ie?; are truths 
that transcend experience, simply because 
they are universal, and are just as true in 
Orion as upon this earth. 

But our worthy Chairman of the Executive 
Committee informs us that, at our Cleveland 
Convention, we are to have none of this 
transcendentalism, none of these necessary, 
self-evident, axiomatic truths. Perhaps they 
will not be needed ; possibly, however, it may 
be found that even book-keeping science 
lights its torch also at the burning mount of 
transcendentalism. How about the axiom 
that every debtor has a creditor? Is ther« 
any transcendentalism in that? It certainly 
would be just as true in commercial relations 
at the North Star, as in the business affairt 
of this earth. That, then, we affirm, it 
beyond experience, and, therefore, is a trans- 
cendental truth. All this is true, also, of th« 
axioms: If to equals, equals be added, the 
Bumn will bo equal ; and if from equals, 
equals be taken, the remainders will be equal 
both of which are applicable to double-entry 
journals, ledgers and trial-balances. 

Again, I look in vain among the " topics 
for discussion" to find any allusion to the 
subject of hook-keeping! One would natu- 
rally suppose that, in a Convention of Busi- 
, noBs CoUegeH, that the "Science of Accounts," 
which is the chief branch of the business 
corriculunj. would be the chief topic of dis- 
cussion. Your correBpoudent has, he thinks, 
attended all the Business College Conventions, 
and he regrets to say that, in his judgment, 
the Science of Accounts, as a topic of die- 
oussion, has not by any means received the 
attention that the importJiace of the subji 
demands. It is down, however, among "t 
subjects to be taught," during which exercii 
it may be the design of the committee that 
the theory and science shall receive 

Finally, trusting and hoping that the coming 
Convention will prove a brilliant success 
am, fraternally, E. G. Folsom, 

Albany Business College. 
ALBiNT, May 22, 1879. 

The Spiri 
By the bt. 


t Beauty nnfurlBhor light 

:rack through the balmy uir 

le valley with crystal ebuun. 

e bangs over the western eky 
d the eklrtsofa deepened fold 

wheel] Qg ber flight ib] 

e Spirit Of Beauty li 

The Writing Class. 

Legible handwriting is the logical residt of 
educating both the mind and the hand in the 
forms of the letters. The pupil who rightly 
comprehends will be best able to execute. Tho 
intellectual grasp of the written characters will 
control the practice, and legibility will become 

the E 

ting a 

matical parity in speaking. Illegibility of 
style betrays imperfect knowledge of form. 
Such writing is in reality a picture of the con- 
ception of the letters in the mind of the wri- 

It is becoming more apparent to educators 
that penmanship, as a special branch, should 
be better taught. But many who readily ac- 
quiesce in the need, do not see clearly the 
means to be employed. We woiUd simply 
suggest that, if the primary instruction be a 
thorough exposition of correct principles, the 
higher grades will have something solid to 
build upon. Let the very first effort be di- 
rected to the primary departments. Here is 
where cramped movement and vicious practice 
originate, and here is where the educating 
force shoidd begin. To allow scholnrs to 
start wrong, and work under a bad system 
during the most impressible school period, 
and afterward to devote time and labor to 
remedy this false education, does not smooth 
the way of the pupil, lighten the task of the 
teacher, nor produce satisfactory results. 

The primary teacher has the advantage of 
laying the foundation. To do this success- 
fully, call, for the same amount of time and 
thought as are given to other branches. It is 
not enough to require careful observance of 
the engraved copy. The pupil must be taught 
to know the lines in each letter before he can 
have a clear and intelligent idea of the letter. 
To simply practice the written forms without 
any analysis, would be to repeat over and 
over again the same errors uutil couiirmed. 
But to know the elementary parts, and to care- 
fully execute each in building up the whole 
letter, incites the best, because intelhgent, 
effort of tho pupil. Such practice is both 
natural and progressive. 

The writing-lesson is often unsatisfactory 

and tedious to teacher and pupils, from the 
former having no interest beyond mere rou- 
tine duty. But let the teacher fully compre- 
hend that a beautiful aii. lesson is included in 
one of the most practical that can be given, 
and the task will be relieved from any diyness 
and monotony. When the teacher once fairly 
enters into the spirit of the work, the pupils 
will be easily attrficted. There is a fascination 
to children in the very idea of being able to 
express their thoughts in writing. Enthusias- 
tic effort will secure, in even primary classes, 
earnest workers, whose progress will be a 
pleasant surprise, and a proof that success in 
the writing-class depends largely upon the 
quality of instruction. 

The engraved models of copy-book enhance 
the necessity for mental application. Here are 
correct forms, subject to laws of proportion, 
to be studied, analyzed, and reproduced ; 
while black-board illustration, oral instruct- 
ion, and criticism, are demanded of the 
teacher. The material is all at hand, but the 
work is in no sense accomplished, nor is there 
given a royal road for teaching. 

Spacing is another essential point in wri- 
ting. We have only casually introduced it 
as yet, since slant also regulates the width 
of letters. In attempting too much with 
young pupils, we fail to make positive im- 
pressions, and confuse the mind. We have 
spoken of the slant as something easily under- 
stood, and have avoided any abstract treat- 
ment. This familiar method best appeals to 
primary classes. 

" Children, we come now to a lot of looped 
letters, which make up the last two groups of 

the small alphabet. The tali jitiU gracefullet- 
ters in the upper group have a strong family 
likeness. They are all, in fact, buUt after 
one model,— the upper looped stem, which 
has the place of honor at the head of the five 
letters. Now, if you will look at the Italic //, 
A. /, A, and/, as I write them on the board, 
you will see that each has a long straight stem 
n a main line. The written letters have the 
ime long stem. But to make them easy to 
-rite, and to connect with other letters, a long, 
ghl-curve begins each. This first curve ex- 
tends almost to the top, where a short upper 
turn leatk to the left, and combines with the 
stem, thus. Here you have the upper- 
looped stem, which is wholly above the base- 
The main line, or stem, is not straight 
iho\e length, because that would make a 
straight-liacked. ugly letter ; but above the 
height of one space it is slightly curved to the 
so that above this point the stem is the 
left-curve, and below this point it is the 
straight line. The stem should cross first 
3 at just thf height of one space. The 
loop is two spaces tall, and adds another story 
each letter of the gi-oup. When you write this 
principle, make the first curve just like the 
curve of i up to height of one space; 
then slant the cui-vo a little less, to the turn 
Half space, or half the width of u. is the 
right width for the loop. In writing the 
long upward curve, you have to reach out or 
extend the thumb and fingers; iu writinc the 
stem on the downward movement, you 
to draw in or slightly bend the thumb 
and fingers. When you learn this graceful 
r movement, you will be able to make 
graceful letters. But you will need to prac- 
the principle some time before you can 
moke it properly. Hold your pen or pencil 
lightly, and move your fingers easily and nat- 
nrally, and you will not tire your hand. 
Wrong practice is hard, while right practice 

The intersecting point of the looped stem 
governs the proportions of the principle. 
The division is always into thirds. The de- 
creased slant of the connecting curve above 
the height of one space brings the main line 
on to the main slant, and preserves the sym- 
metry of the principle. The following re- 
sume of the construction will suggest the plan 
of teaching the separate letters of the group. 

In /(, the last part of n, or third principle, 
finishes the looped stem. The second part of 
k is quite difficult, but first impress the char- 
acteristic form. Italic k is finished by the 
meeting of two short curves in an angle at 
stem. The script letter has essentially the 
same characteristic, but the vertex of the 
angle meets a short connecting curve instead 
of the stem. This connecting line runs up 
from base of stem, is on decreased slant to 
height of one space, and thence is nearly 
horizontal, in order to combine with the up- 
per curve of the characteristic ; the narrow 
loop resulting therefrom is almost horizontal. 
The last part of this characteristic is the first 
principle modified ; the main line is on de- 
creiiaed slant, and begins with a short turn. 
In I, the looped stem is finished like the last 
part of (', or first principle ; in ft, with tho 
narrow turn at base and last two curves of v. 
In /, the stem extends below base in a slight 
left-curve, and unites in a short turn to the 
right with an upward right-curve which crosses 
stem at base. A combined shade (gradual- 
ly increasing ond diminishing) is given to the 
stem below base. The elegance of the letter 
depends upon the correct slant, and slight 
curvature of stem. 

We treat the lower-looped stem similarly to 
the preceding principle, illustrating to the 
class how the inversion and reversion of the 
loop results in the extended left-curve instead 
of the right, and in the lower instead of the 
upper turn. In both the looped principles, 
the turn is added to the long, sweeping curve as 
part of the connecting line. This is the only 
instance in the small alphabet where the turn 
is not part of a main line. The ground-plan 
of the four letters in this group is found in 
i, 71, and a, and their construction will be at 
once apparent to the teacher. The looped 
stem is not modified, except in e, where it 
begins with a short upper turn. 

The practice on the above gi'oups is an ad^ 
mirable preparation for the broader move 
ment of the capitals. General pmctice or 
the latter, previous to a thorough and com- 
plete drill on the looped letters is a violation 
iu grading, inconsistent with real progress. 
Primary Teacher. 

Office op Old Dominion Business College, 

Richmond, Va., May 13, 1871). 
Editor Penmnn'a Art Journal : 

The abstract of Mr. Wiesehahn's letter, 
published in your May number, gives us the 
idea of a chaotic Kea. upon which the penmen 
of our country have long been tossed; but 
happily, through his inspiration, the w 
thereof are about to become petrified, and 
thus enable the misdirected mariners to reach 
the coast of the beautiful "classical" land 
dry shod, where, from its great elevated 
planes, they shall view with gladness the 
enchanting vale dotted with the tombs of the 
*' fioui-uking" pens. 

It would be no extravagant metaphor to 
affirm that others see more with their minds 
than it appears Mr. W. sees with his eyes. 
Notwithstanding fiourishes are but fanciful 
Unes, they are still of such a character that 
their impress than we 
feel them to be acting upon our sympathies, 

thout our knowing why or wherefore. We 
naturally infer, however, that their mysterious 
power is owing in some way to their poetic 
influence, and we rationally conclude that the 
spirit from which so many beautifid produc- 
iu still teeming with others, 
and perhaps more beautiful, that only want 
tement to come forth in 
all theii' exquisite dash, grace, and harmonious 

To assert that "flourishing " is solely 
"mechanical" is to falsify our conviction, 
inasmuch as we find it appeals to our imagina- 
tion, which cannot be touched without 
awakening by its vibrations, so to speak, the 
untold myriads of sleeping forms that lie 
within its circle, that start up iu tribes, and 
h in accordance with the congenial instru- 

matter of controversy 
whether "flourishing" belongs to "true 
' since the greatest penmen that this 
itry has produced have recognized its 
and cultivated it as an affinity 
with their hearts and intellects. 

Admitting that the prevailing tendency is 

render it too general, and that Mr. W.'s 

admirable drawings supersede the necessity 

for it, Btill we are no less unwilliug to permit 

the Eureka of Mr. W. to inveigh us into a 

Numerous are the instances where a few 
irregular lines have invested works of pen- 
manship with the most tmsatisfyiug effect ; 
yet these same little lines would have pro- 
duced a most pleasing expression had their 
wondrous power been tempered, as it were, 
to our mysterous desires. Who, then, would 
commend the Quixotism of him who felt 
called upon to avenge the perversions by 
attacking the impregnable ramparts of the 
knights of the artistic quill? 

The greatest geniuses are generally found 
to be the widest bkers ; and the excellence of 
their predecessors and contemporaries con- 
tributes to their powers ; not as presenting 
models of imitation, but as shedding new 
light in their own minds, and opening to view 
their hidden treasures. 

Very respectfully, 

Geo. M. Nicol. 


Everybody, says Chayjihers, is now taught 
to write, and there are probably few persons 
belonging to what are called the respectable 
classes who do not imagine that they can 
write a letter fairly, both as regards calig- 
raphy and corrpctness of expression. Our 
opinion is somewhat different. There is an 
immense amount of bad letter- writing. In a 
vast number of cases coming under our ex, 
perience, persons of good education do not 
know how to write their own name intel- 
ligibly. We have seen a letter written by a 
"finished" young lady in her nineteenth year. 
The penmanship it,self Wds ugly, ungainly, 
and awkward ; the spelling of several ordi- 
nary words was incoiTect ; small letters were 
used where capitals ought to have been ; and 
we wondered as we perused the ill-composed, 
badly-written document how a being of even 
moderate abilities could send forth anything 
so imperfect. Yet this young lady had been 
for years at a high-class school where masters 
hadtaught English in all its branches, the mis- 
tress of which was also a person of refinement. 
Penmanship is far too little attended to in 
schools, even of the best class. No doubt 
ornamental writing is often taught ; but this 
style generally unfits the pupil for the plain 
everyday process. The best model for dailv 
use should be placed before the young lady 
for at least one year before she leaves school, 
and after she has emerged from the regiUar 
text and half-text copies. Epistolary com- 
posi ion should also be studied as a distinct 
accomplishment, if the pupil have no natural 
talent that way. 

Good penmanship is as necessary for a lady 
or gentleman as a good style of talking or 
reading. If a man is owner of a large estate, 
with servants, money and influence at com- 
mand, we wonder all the more if he writes a 
mean, cramped or illiterate hand. We take 
up his letter with a feeling of 8uii)rise, and 
saying : " what ! is this the production of So- 
and-so ? It looks like the wretched scraping 
of some poor laborer with a scarcity of ink to 
boot." Bad writing has the effect upon the 
eye that discordant tones to n 
the ear.— iV. F. Xe,r^, 

Cause of the "War of 1812. 

The manner in which a pig caused the war 
of 1812, was as follows :-Two citizens of 
Providence, R. I., both of the Federal school 
of politics, chanced to quarrel. They were 

ighbors, and one of them owned a pig 
which had an inveterate propensity to peram- 
bulate in the garden of the other. The 
owner of the garden complained that his 
neighbor's pig-sty was insuflicient to restrain 
the pig, and the neighbor insisted that the 
garden fences were not in good repair. One 
morning, as the pig was taking his usual 
ramble, he was surjiriscd iu the very act of 
iug up some vahiable bulbous roots; this 
the " last feather," and the owner of the 
garden instantly put the pig to death with a 
pitchfork. Atthe coming election, the owner 
of the giirden was n candidate of the Legis- 
lature, and his neighbor, who, but for the 
quarrel, would have voted for him, voted for 
tho Democratic candidate, who was elected 
by tt majority of one. At the election of a 
United States Senator, a Democrat was chosen 
by a majority of one ; and when the question 
lur with England wos before the Senate, 
8 declared by a majority of only one. — 
Iltstoiioal Magaeine. 

Id aud BDOW agALDBt tho eombre blue 1 
d pillions, eheddint; sunlight on the lea, 

A golden 

o»thot fluttered to the earth 1 


bering world'e awoke to new delie 


10 aea the glorious wondor apread- 
hoavenly hei^bU that bird's wings 

So eprend 

BUDbotms flaah from bill to hlU, 
the story of the golden qulU; 


world wan filled with Joyous light 
ing with tmth's winged pages wbi 

book-keeping aud 

The Convention. 

The following topics hove beeu adopted by 
the executive committee for discussion at the 
Bueiuess CoUege Teachers' and Pt'umen's 
Convention to be held at Clevelaud, Ohio, 

1. The minimmn amount of education nec- 
essary to make one eligible for admission into 
a busiuess college as a student. 

2. The minimum of qualification which will 
permit a pupil to graduate from a business 

3. The relation of business colleges to their 

4. The place of business colleges in the 
educational system. 

5. The relation of business colleges to the 
business community. 

G. The relation of business college grad- 
uates to the business community. 
7. Thecapabilitiesof a business college. I 

10. Flourishing. 

11. Engrossing. 

12. Shoit court 

13. Business arithmetic. 

14. Partnership settlements. 

\rt. Short methods in calculation. 

16. Business correspomlence. 

17. Business etiquette. 

The followmg persons at this date have 
signified their intention to be present and 
take part in the proceedings, viz.; S, S. 
Packard, New York; Hon. Ira Miiyhew, 
Detroit, Mich.; J. C. Bryant, Buffalo, N. Y.; 
H. 0. Spencer, Washington, D. C; E. G. 
Folsom, Albany. N. Y.; G, W. Elhott, Chi- 
cago, 111.; C. Clagharn, Brooklyn, N. Y.; 
H. C. Wright, Brooklyn, N. Y.; G. R. Rath- 
bun, Omaha, Neb.; J. W. Van Sickle, 
Springfield, 0.; J. H. Palmer. Youkers, N, 
Y.; A. J, Taylor, Rochester. N. Y.; W. H. 
Sprague, Norwalk, O.; D. R. Lillibridge, 
Davenport, Iowa.; C. E. Cady, New York; 
D. T. Ames, New York ; W. A. Miller, New 
York: J. E. Soule, Philadelphia, Pa,; T, M. 
Peirce, Philadelphia, Pa.; F. W. Weisehahu, 
St. Louis, Mo.; W. H. Duff, Pittsburgh, Pa,; 
S. R. Webster, Rock Creek, O.; A. P. Root, 
Cleveland, O.; H. W. Shaylor, Portland. Me.; 
A. H. Hinman, Boston, Mass.; L. P. Spen- 
cer, Cleveland, 0.; L. L. Sprague, Kingston, 
Pa.; J. H. Lunsley, Elizabeth, N. J. Many 
other responses to the circular of invitation 
are expected by the committee from those 
who will desire to take an active part in the 

There can now be no doubt that there will 
be a large aud enthusiastic convention. 


other difficulty is due to the causes which 
render the Egyptian historical writings more 
hard to enterpret than the historical. Yet, 
thanks to M, De Rouge's patience and skill, 
tho general purport of the work is now under- 
stood. It is, throughout, text aud commeU' 
tary aud curiously, the text usually simpler 
than the commentary, which, by its alle- 
gorizing method, renders the obscurity of the 
subject greater. The theme of the ritual is 
the story of the man's fate in the nether 
world, and the text consists of a series of 
prayers to be said in each of the several zones 
through which the soul was to pass c 
way to judgment, and the confession of i 
ceuce that was to insure its acquittal. It 
might be supposed that so great a m 
would have beeu treated in the loftiest style 
of which the language was capable, with the 
simplicity of the Egyptian memoir, the pathos 
of the dirge, and occasional grandeur of the 
historical writings and the religious hymus. 
But it is far otherwise. Nowhere is the lower 
element of Egyptian religion so evident as in 
the ritual. It is obscure and mysterious with- 
out elevation or dignity. The student seeks 
in vain for a single passage worthy of the 
ideas conveyed through the eye by the pyra- 
mids and the tombs of the kings. He wan- 
ders through a labyrinth peopled by the forms 
of the lowest superstition, and the idea forces 
itself upon him that the negro element of the 
Egyptian mind is here dominant, not always 
in the thoughts, but always in their express- 
ion. Nothing more forcibly shows the strength 
of. this element, not even animal worship. 
Side by side with the ritual we find another 
work relating to the underworld, the "Book 

"But," continued the ageut, deUghted at 
the style in which he was crowding the 
Professor. "I doubt not but that certain 
energetic polarizations of the molecules in 
the mineral deposits have an attraction for 
the electrically charged clouds." 

At these points the Professor, who bad 
been knocked aroimd the ring and crowded 
to the ropes, so to speak, became fairly roused 
to his position, and slogged for the other's 
nose at once. 

" Ah, exactly my friend ; in the ledge are 
vast deposits of minerals. Found in volcanic 
matrices and disintegrated by the upheaval 
of plutonic rock and semi-fused masses of 
eihcious alumina, mingled with homogeneous 
debris of porphyry, the molecidesof kaolined 
f eldites, with a slight potash base, the decom- 
position of the feldspar is most affected 
along the line of the horizontal cleavage, and 
necessarily the liberated oxide of manganese 
combining with the percolation of the alka- 
lis which permeate the entire mass causes a 
prouounced state of polarization, which can- 
not fail to accoimt for the pecuhar attraction 
in the vicinity. I might further explain the 
intricate chemical properties of the belt by 
illustrating the — " 

By this time, however, the book agent, 
who during the roimd had been verbally 
pasted in the jaw, smashed in the nose, and 
biffed in the eye, rose from his seat, paid full 
price for his half-eaten meal, and shot out of 
the place. Andy said he examined the Pro- 
fessor, found his pulse regular, no signs of 
perspiration, and his mind intact. 

8. The public need of a business college, 
and tho spirit aud manner in which the 
public announcements and advertisements 
of these institutious shall set forth their 
claims for patrouage and support. 

9. Oivil government as a study to be pur- 
sued by a business college' student. 

10. The extent of arithmetic embraced in a 
busiuess college course. 

11. The minimum amount of commercial 
law belonging to a business college course, 
and how shall it bo taught. 

12. PoUtical economy iu the business col- 

13. Phonography, a busiuess college study. 

14. The importance of penmanship in a 
business college. 

1.5. The relation of ornamental penmanship 
to busiuess writing. 

10. The discipline of business colleges. 

17. Business honor and morals. 

IR. Intorcommunicatiou by students of 
different colleges. 

1. Initiatory methods. 

2. Joumahziug. 


i pra 

4. Banking. 

fi. Penmanship— the members of the asso- 
ciation sitting as a class of beginners. 

G. Penmanship — the members of the asso- 
ciation sitting as an advanced class in a public 

7. The essential points of business penman- 

8. Penmanship— class drill in movements 

Egyptian Writing. 

9. Blackboard 

1 penmanship. 

Writing was as old in Egypt as architecture 
and sculpture. The papyrus reed fui-nished 
the most ancient material for paper in the 
days of the oldest monuments. The dry cli- 
mate has preserved a great number of ancient 
rolls, of which most are religious, and of these 
again the greater part copies of one book, 
the "Ritual," which French scholars call 
the " Funereal Ritual " and the Germans the 
"Book of the Dead." It is a work evidently 
compiled from time to time, divided into 
sections, originally separate books, and chap- 
ters, each chapter being usually illustrated by 
a representation of its chief subject above 
the text. Part of this book has been found 
of the date of the eleventh dynasty (B. C. 
2000), and. according to its own statement, 
which derives collateral support from a more 
general assertiouof Manetho, one chapter was 
discovered in the time of the great pyramid 
i.Hiildiug kings of the fourth dynasty. There 
Clin be uo doubt that the greater part is of 
extreme antiquity. 

Two great difficulties assail us in the en- 
deavor even to construe this book. It was 
held to be specially advantageous to the mum- 
mified Egyptian that a copy should be depos- 
ited in his tomb. Consequently it became 
the custom to write these copies in great 
numbers and, as they were not intended to be 
read, tlie scribes were careless in their copy- 
ing. Hence arise a multitude of errors which 
at every step embarraaa the student. Tho 

of the Lower Hemisphere," describing the 
jourueyiugs of the soul after death through 
twelve zones coiTespouding to the twelve 
hours of the nocturnal sun. This book was 
iu fashion at the period to which most of the 
tombs of the kings (nineteenth aud twentieth 
dynasties) belong, and their pictures afford I the product by the 

We have found no boy's composition of late 
which seems to put the Father of His Coun- 
try on a stronger moral basis than this one. 
It serves the still further purpose of showing 
that where there is real, irrepressible genius, 
great ideas somewhat precede mere knack of 
spelling : — 

george Washington waa a little boy what 
onct lived in Virginny what had a nax give 
him by his old man. Wen george he got the 
lax he cutted a tree what had cherreys up on 
t and eat the cherreys he and a nother boy. 
When georges old man foim out what george 
the nother boy done, he called george too 
him an he sais, george Washington who cutted 
tlia bark ofen the cherrey tree ! george eaisi 
did Tha old man sais you did george sais i did 
aud i cannot tell a li. Why cant you tell a li 
sais the old man. Ooz sais george if i tell a li 
this here fellerl blow on me an then ill be 
spanked twict. thats rite sais the old man 
yer git in to trouble tha esyist way 
tha best. 

the illustrations of its chaptt 
TO/ry Review. 

Vanquishing a Book Agent. 

The late George Bidder, the London en- 
gineer, once known as "the wonderful cal- 
culating boy," at the age of eight, could an- 
swer almost instantaneously how many pence 
there are in £8(!8, 424,121. Zerah Colburu was 
another "lightning calculator" of thesame 
generation. Once he was asked to name the 
iquaro of 1)99,999, which he stated to be 999, 
008,000.001. He midtiplied this by 49, and 
mber, aud the to- 

tal result he then multiplied by 25. He raised 
the figures to the sixteenth power with ease. 
He named the squares of 244,999,755 and 1,- 
224,998,775. He instantly named the factors, 
941 aud 263, which would produce 247,483. 
He could discover prime numbers almost as 
soon as named. In five seconds he calculated 
the cube root of 413,733,348.677. 

Dehnonico restaurant aud asked Andy, the 
irrepressible head steward, to bring liim 
some stuffed mutton and parsnips, No soon- 
er had the Professor fairly seated himself at 
n.-a nt tu^ II . . 1 .. , I oun-o xTiKou IS iJavici ireiers, a coi 

oueof the smaU tables than a book agent „>,„ ; ,a..„ ,, «*» 

,^nmfl ;« nn^ t.^ 1 n x^i ■ , ^^^ "^ l''''^ received a fifteen years' 

came in and took tho other side of tho board. ' 
The two men were strangers, 
of course, this book pedler couldn't keep still, 
and presently made some conversational ad- 
vance to Stewart. 

these meteorological disturb- 
ances somewhat peculiar for these latitudes?" 

The Professor paused a moment, as he was 
mashing a potato, and replied : — 

" Guess it's about the same thing every 

"In seasons of atmospheric depression al- 
ternating with unexpected boreal excitements 
and rapid changes resultant on sudden ac- 
cumulations of moistiure, such dispositions 
of the storm belt ar 
entirely imcalled for." 

"Exactly," remarked the Professor, lifting 
a fly out of his coffee. 

my opmion. 

for assault. He was ignorant, but when al- 
™'^".^'' I lowed the use of the prison library he soon 
made astonishing advances in learning. He 
mastered arithmetic, algebra aud geometry, 
took a course in logic and rhetoric, and then 
turned his attention to languages. He ac- 
quired a fair knowledge of French, German, 
Latin and Greek, and then took up jurispru- 
dence. He is now reading law, and for a 
change studies Hebrew. He debvered at a 
Thanksgiving celebration in the prison a year 
or two ago an oration which was pronounced 
a remarkable production. 

One of the finest puns was made by Ers- 
kine. Seeing an old tea chest, he wrote on it 
the Latin inscription. *' Tu docee." This bit 
of classic lore, when properly translated, 
means " Thou teachest." 




.. tl» 00 

»3.1 00 tUS 00 



,-.:: \f 

'§ M "2 S 





9, pnj-ftt] 



No devl.lloi. froD. 

Ihe .60 

aspondents aod ageolB, 


Specimen Copies of the Joarnal, 

To each of our regular subscribers we this 
month mail an extra copy of the Journal, 
which they are requested to reach to some 
frieud most likely to become interested in 
and subscribe for it. Although our 
subscription list is large and increasing, 
it is yet far short of what it should be; there 
are many thousands of teachers and pupils 
of writing throughout the country who 
should and would readily subscribe were 
the matter properly presented to them; will 
not our friends, who receive an extra copy, 
each do us the favor to use it with their best 
efforts to induce an additional subscriber? 
The effort will cost each but a trifle, and 
will make a splendid aggregate for us. 

yfe also mail several thousand copies of 
the present number as specimens to teachers 
and others most likely to be interested in its 
flpecialty, whose earnest attention is invited 
to the claims of the Jouhnal, for their pa- 
tronage as an advocate and guide to the 
successful teaching and practice of writing. 
To all who wish to more fully test its merits. 
we will mail the seven remaining numbers of 
Vol. Ill, with the splendid premium of the 
Lord's Prayer, 19x24. for fiftycents. The pre- 
mium alone is worth twice the money. These 
seven numbers will contain all information 
relating to the second Penmen's Convention 
to he held in August, and a full report of its 
proceedings. Each number will also contain 
one or more illustrations with gems of pen 

Luck is a good thing, but one cannot 
always afford to wait for it. Pluck is a 
better thing, because it is always ready to 

Impositions and Impostors. 

Few articles have appeared in the col- 
umns of tlio JoPHNAL which have elicited 
so many and earnest commendations, as the 
communication, with editorial comments 
thereon, in the last issue, under the heading 
of ■' Dead Beats." It touched many who 
had been made tender by numbers of simi- 
lar fraudulent or begging postal cards. We 
know from a personal experience of many 
years, as a conductor of a business college, 
that proprietors of these institutions, who 
are themselves, or who employ penmen of 
repute, are literally bored out of all patience 
by applicationa, under all sorts of pretences, 
for specimens of their "best plain and orna- 
mental penmanship," right from the pen. 
Since wc began the publication of the Jour- 
nal, dead-heads and frauds have been our 
greatest plague; no one, not iiaving had a 
similar experience, can imagine the extent, 
number and phases of the genus dead beats 
and dead heads. It is actually sufficient, 
were all applicants favored to tlie full extent 
of their requests, to consume our entire 
time and resources. Some apply almost 
monthly by postal card for specimen copies of 
the Journal, others beg or secure by fraud, 
specimens of penmanship from other and 
superior writers, which they send to the 
Journal to be noticed as their own. Among 
the specimens thus sent by one person, no 
less than six different penmen who have ex- 
amined the collection in our scrap book of 
specimens, have recognized their own hand- 
iwork. Requests for criticisms of writing 
upon postal cards, and answers to one-sided 
questions, in the columns of the Journal, 
by persons who apply by postal card for the 
subsequent number to learn if their modest 
request has been granted, are multitudinous. 
We do not, however, infer that all these are 
essentially dishonest or mean, hut many are 
thoughtless young persons, who having nev- 
er employed their time in any occupation or 
manner to teach them its importance or val- 
ue, do not realize that time can be of more 
account to others than it is to themselves. 
They imagine that the specimen or favor 
which they ask will require hut a few mo- 
ments or a trifle of money, which they, in 
most instances would give just as freely as 
they ask it from others, hut they forget that 
the same reason that leads them to ask a 
specimen from a penman whose rare skill 
has rendered him famous, leads hundreds 
and perhaps thousands of others to solicit 
the same favors, sufficient in the aggregate 
to weary and impoverish him were be to at- 
rempt a response. We are sufficiently char- 
itable to believe that by far the larger num- 
ber belong to this class, but our mantle of 
charity is not sufficiently ample to take all 
within its folds. Persistent and well laid 
schemes to defraud, in some instances furn- 
ish evidence of moral obliquity not to be 
gainsaid, overlooked or forgiven, short of 
seeing works meet for repentance. The lat- 
ter class we do not regard as sufficiently 
promising subjects for missionary labor to 
warrant our efforts in their behalf, hut we 
trust that the former class will be sufficiently 
wise to take these gentle hints, and "come 
right over." 

The Value of Good Writing. 

It is safe to say that no other one acoom- 
pUshment will so greatly and readily aid a 
lady or a gentleman seeking employment as a 
good hand-writiug. It is an accomplishment 
that always speaks promptly and well for its 
poBseBBor, opening many ways for a beginning, 
and when supported by other valuable attain- 
ments, united with industry and integrity, 
carries its possessor forward and upward to 
places of profit and distinction. Many of 
our most prominent business and prof>3SBional 
men are indebted for their first position and 
early success to a good hand-writing ; and 
how many applicants for places as clerks owe 
their rejection to an awkward hand-writing it 
is impossible to tell. Where applications for 
positious are made by mail, those written in a 
good hand alone receive consideration. A 
t^ood or bad hand tumB the scale, and opens 
the way to success to the one, and securely 
bars it to the other. When we thus reflect 
upon the importance of writing a good baud, 
and the ease with which it may be acquired 
by the proper study and practice, it is indeed 

surprising to witness how few really good 
writers there are, and how indifferent are 
most teachers and school officers respecting 
the proper instruction in writing. We think, 
however, that the signs of the times are im- 
proving in this respect. 

Writing in Normal Schools- 
It is to the normal schools of the land that 
we took for models of successful instruction 
in our public as well as private schools, yet 
so far as teaching writing is concerned, if 
we are to judge from the results obtained 
by teachers and pupils in most of our nor- 
mal and public schools, the success as s rule. 
is not remarkable; indeed, so far as we 
know, very few of our normal schools are 
employing really representative teachers of 
writing, or attaching anything like due im- 
portance to system, and modes for skillful 
instruction in this important but badly neg- 
lected department of education. It is with 
pleasure, therefore, that we note exceptions 
to this rule. For several years past the State 
Normal School of New Jersey has employed 
a most efficient and skillful teacher of writ- 
ing in the person of Professor D. H. Far 
ley. We recently examined specimens of 
writing by one hundred different pupils in 
this school, which are indeed remarkable; 
their aggregate degree of excellence was the 
highest we have ever seen for so large 
a number of pupils. If all our normal 
schools could show equal results we should 
look for a new crop of teachers who would 
not disgrace the school room with their own 
awkward writing and utter unfitness for 
teaching it. 

How to Profit by our Writing Lessons. 

For the benefit of the many who are en- 
deavoring to improve their writing throvigh 
the aid of the lessons now being given in the 
columns of the Journal, we venture to 
offer the following suggestions: 

Many pupils fail to become good writers 
from want of sufficient patience to study 
and practice upon one thing until it is thor- 
oughly mastered, before taking up some- 
thing new; the real secret of success, in all 
things, is absolute thoroughness. 

If each reader, who seeks to profit by 
these lessons, will bear this in mind, and, by 
study and practice, make himself master of 
all that is given in each lesson, which he 
can easily do, he will, at the end of the 
course, have a thorough knowledge of writ- 
ing and the ability to write at least a good 
legible hand ; and if he really has a genius in 
that direction he may become an accom- 
plished writer and teacher. The one thing 
essential is to master the lesson of each 
month. Andibcar in mind that we have on file 
specimens from about one thousand readers 
and the one who presents the best specimen 
of improvement at the close of the lessons 
will get a handsome premium, and have the 
honor and pleasure, to say nothing of the 
advantage, of being the best one in u thou- 
sand, and how his name will shine in the 
columns of the Journal. Remember, that 
toil is the price of excellence. 

Instruction by Mail. 
We are in receipt of a large number of 
communications soliciting instruction in 
writing by mail, which we have neither the 
time nor inclination to give, certainly not in 
the form, nor to the extent to be called in- 
struction; but as a large number of these 
communications come from persons who are 
already well advanced, being really good 
writers, yet having a few faults, of which 
they are either 




that we can do such persons considerable 
service by criticising their writing, pointing 
out its faults, and offering advice for their 
correction by mail, and especially to those 
who are seeking to practice from, and im- 
prove by the course of lessons now being 
given through the columns of the Journal, 
Such as desire to try the experiment, and 
will comply with the following directions, 
we will serve to the best of our ability: 

Write the specimen for correction upon a 
letter sheet in your best and most perfect 
manner, writing not over three-fourths down 
the sheet, leaving at least one inch upon 
each margin, to give room to note correc- 

tions and suggestions, tlieu inclose $1.00. 
We are confident that many of our aspiring 
young writers would find this a very profit- 
able investment. 

Bad Penmanship. 

Anecdotes of bad penmanship are again in 
order. The first Napoleon had so little mas- 
tery over his pen that his letters from Ger- 
many to Josephine were at first eight taken 
for rough maps of the seat of war. John W. 
Brooks, the railroad manager, wrote to a man 
Uvingon the Michigan Central route, threat- 
ening to prosecute him forthwith, unless he 
removed a barn he had run upon the com- 
pany's property. The recipient did not read 
the letter, for reading it was inipossihle, but 
he made out the signature, and arrived at 
the conclusion that the manager had favored 
him with a free pass along the line. As such 
he used it for a couple of years, no conduc- 
tor on the route being able to dispute his 
reading of the document. H. W. Beecher 
can hardly be considered a model scribe, see- 
ing that one of his daughters owned that her 
three guiding rules in copying his manu- 
script were that if a letter was dotted it was 

and if a word began with a capital it did not 
begin a sentence. Horace Greeley's dis- 
charge of a compositor by note, we all re- 
member was used as a recommendation of 
character, which brought the bearer honor 
and position. Theodore Parker, who was 
about the worst writer hereabouts within the 
last thirty years, took the premium when at 
school for the best penmanship. 

Marvellous Specimen of Pen Art. 

The nllcntion of our readers is invited to 
Jlr. Biirhnv's advertisement in another col- 
umn, of his remarkable centennial picture, 
a copy of which we have received. It is 
unquestionably the most elaborate and com- 
prehensive pictorial presentment of Amer- 
ican progress ever executed; to attempt to 
describe it would require columns of space 
in the Journal, which cannot well be spar- 
ed at this time. To it was awarded a diplo- 
ma and medal at the Centennial Exhibition 
of 187G, the highest premium awarded to 
penmanship in the art department at that 

Kibbe'B Magic Lettering Tablet. 

We arc indebted to Mr. Kibbe for one of 
these ingenious and practical devices for aid- 
ing in the construction of the standard Ko- 
man alphabet, to which purpose it appears to 
be well adapted. We judge it to be of ser- 
vice, principally to the learner or inexpe- 
rienced letter writer rather than to the adept. 
We have, however, been too pressed with 
other duties to give it a sufficient study and 
trial to judge fully of its capabilities or real 
value, but, to say the least, we are favorably 
impressed with it. For more full inform- 
ation see advertisement in another coliuun. 


We are deeply pained t 
death of Mrs. S. S. Packard, whicli occurred 
on the 28lh instant. Mrs, Packard was ex- 
tensively and favorably known among those 
who have been identified with the Bryant 
and Stratton chain of colleges, by whom 
she was highly esteemed as a lady of rare 
merit, and to whom news of her death will 
cause unfeigned sadness. She was a woman 
of large heart and generous impulses ; an 
earnest and charitable friend, a devoted 
wife and mother. 

To Mr. Packard and the entire circle who 
mourn their irreparable loss, we extend our 
warmest sympathies. 

Seven Numbers of the Journal and a 
Splendid Premium for Fifty Cents. 
As an inducement to teachers, pupils and 
others interested in good writing to try the 
Journal, we will mail the remaining 
seven numbers of Vol. Ill with the Lord's 
Prayer premium, 19x24. for fifty cents. The 
premium is an elegant and valuable picture, 
and has actually been sold by agents at 
one dollar per copy. 


to the columns of the Jodrnal, regarding any 
department of teaching or practicing writing, 
or upon any branch of practical education, 
are respectfully aohcited. 

Art Edacation, No. 3. 

The fact cannot be denied that his position 
n the school of progress, (at least in art,) is 
It the foot of his class. The great lessons 
;iven Ihfi wor'.d by the different Universal 
Expositions, he seems very slow in learning. 
England, full of confident anticipations, 
challenged the world to a comparison of in- 
idustrial products in 1851, and found, to her 
surprise and mortification, that in products 
Involving skill and taste, she ranked below 
all her European rivals and above the Uni- 
ted States alone. 

The result aroused the government as 
from a lethargic dream. Immediate and 
srgetic action was taken. The Privy 
Council organized within itself a new sec- 
tion, called the "Department of Science 
and Art," having for its special object the 
lopular dissemination of science and art as 
ipplicd to industry'. 
In 1852, in furtherance of this object, the 
iouth Kensington Museum was established 
an original cost of $0,000,000. and with 
annual grant from the government of 

This is intended and arranged as a Nor- 
mal Art School, where students, selected 
iUiility and fitness, are prepared for art 
•Ills in subordinate schools, Such schools 
f organized in all the importnnt indus- 
? of the country. Their progress 
was watched wilh eager interest and foster- 
ing care by the government. At the end of 
ten years of their existence, in 18«2. Eng- 
land again invited the world to her exposi- 
tion. This lime she had good reasons for 
confidence. Her lavish expenditure, wise 
iiiiii energetic management had produced 
rMiiiiin-usurate results. The progress shown 
ii Mir ;ipplication of the arts of design to 
iliL' industrial arts were so marked in origi- 
ri.iliiy, skill and taste as to excite the aston- 
t>linn 111 of all her Continental neighbors. 
I'lMiu..', in particular, was almost electrified; 
she found that she could no longer depend 
upon her ancient prestige. Her artistic su- 
premacy in the markets was in serious dan- 
ger from such progress by her ancient rival. 
The next year the Emperor appointed a 
large and able Commission, divided into sec- 
tions, to investigate the subject of technical 
education in particular. In 1865 tiiis Corn- 

exhibited i 

report of 

home and in all parts of 
Europe. They declared that " drawuig.-wilh 
111! ii- applications to the different industrial 
;iri-. should be considered as the principal 
\nrAu< u> be employed in technical instruc- 

Tljr f,'overnment immediately put into ac- 
tinii ilic advice of the Commission, and the 
art instruction of France, so long known as 
. the most efficient in Europe, was made 
much better still. The other European na- 
I tions have not been idle on thissubject. Im- 
mediately after the war with France, the 
Prussian Ministry of Commerce and Indus- 
try issued a circular, calling upon the au- 
I thorities of the principal industrial towns to 
. " follow the example of France in tlie orga- 
I nization of Drawing and Industrial Scliools. " 
f Their attention was called to the industrial 
importance of these schrols. and to the fact 
that they form the true basis of the wealth 
of France. Austria, and even Russia also 
took immediate action. 

The educational arrangements of Austria, 
which were pronounced by Hcrace Mann to 
be among the very poorest in Europe thirty 
years ago. are to-day declared by Professor 
John D. Philbrickto be the best;— best in 
organization, course of study, and best in 
the character of their instruction. In the 
light of such facts, the seething activity of 
all Europe on the subject of art culture, 
The millions in enthusiastic drill with im- 
plements of art for the championship in 
gratd industrial tournaments, can Youn" 
America .stand by, an indiflTerent spectator 
and expect reasonably to escape the charge 
of dullness? Is there nothing that can aroise 
his interest? Let us prescni the case to him 
in dollars and cents. Take the example of 
Prance: France, with a domain .«<maller 
than Texas, produced for exportation in 
1874. according lo L'Ecoriomute Francais, 
a total value of $775,550,600. 

United States, according to the 

Bureau of Statistics. 693,000.000 

Manufd exports of France. 434.513.800 

" Un'd States, 16.000,000 

America exports raw material and imports 
manufactured. France exports mostly 
skilled manufactures. It must not be sup- 
oosed that France is deficient in agriculture. 
In 1809 her total production of wheat was 
207,000,000 bushels, 67,000.000 more than 
was produced by the whole of the United 
States. Her produce of potatoes, same 
year, was 275,000,000 bushels, which was 
155.000,000 bushels more than the United 
States. It was owing to this condition of 
things (to her culture in skill and taste), 
that when crushed and bleeding at almost 
every pore, after her defeat by Prussia, she 
could spring as if by magic from her pros- 
trate position, and so quickly pay her for- 
feited milliards. Thus it is to be seen that 
Art Industrial Education is the basis of na- 
tional wealth and power. 


It is the nature of some folks to be awk- 
ward. Grace is a quahty which no amount 
of persistence can ever drill into their souls 
to epeak itself in conduct. They cannot 
learn it. It is beyond them. They are not 
devoid of ordinary comprehension, but they 
cannot learn this. You may study and study, 
and strive and strive to teach them the lesson 
of grace, but you cannot. It is a gift. It 
has its capabilities of growth, development 
aud vast infinitude of gain, but it is a gift. 
It must be implanted with the gift of life. 
It is as natural as the breath to some ; it 
never can be acquired by others. It is like 

sense, except the sense of grace, and the 
lack of this dulls the fineness of every other 
quality. She can do good work, and honest 
work, but it lacks the touch of nicety which 
should complete it. She is thorough and 
faithful, and even overdoes some things, but 
there is a stiffness of appearance about every- 
thing she touches that fairly makes one's 
Boul ache. And she cannot learn better. It 
is her way. She cannot set a chair back, or 
hang an article upon a hook, or do the 
simplest little thing without doing it awk- 
wardly. The very gift of sight is diflferent 
with such a person than with another. The 
wholb individuality lacks a woman's finest 
essential. You think it a habit that might be 
overcome. You suggest improvements aud 
the mode of making them, but you cannot 
change the order of nature. It is a fixed 
fact. Individuahty and originality are them- 
selves the finest of all graces, but they must 
be real qualities aud not affected. There 
must be a foundation at the bottom of them. 
Imitation as an exercise for the culture of 
originality and development of new ideas is 
both wise and noble. Imitation, servile and 
parrot-like, is degradation. Lower than all 
degradation is thut imitation which wins its 
name and fame by theft from another person's 
capital stock of thought, and another person's 
grace of method, effort or nobility of con- 
duct. If we make a mistake, why not con- 
fess we did. and bear the blame of it? 
Surely we are not iufaUible. Why then lay 
claim to another person's points of infalH- 
bility, and thieve from him a greatness which, 
with us, could be merely an outside sham 
with emptiness aud vacuity beneath it? 
Candor aud honesty should stand for them- 

Writing Lesson. 

In this lesson we continue the analysis of 
the short letters. 

\yF7y The letter n begins with left 
curve, and is connected by an upper turn 
to a straight line descending to base line 
where it unites angularly with second left 
curve, joined like the first to straight line, 
united by lower turn to right curve, and 
continued to head line on connective slant. 
Left curves parallel ; straight lines also 
parallel. Height, one space ; width, one 

\y 'f3^/y The letter m is the same as 
n. with first two lines repeated. Height, 
one space ; width, two spaces. 

X y^/y The letter « is formed by lines of 
the same form and slant as the third and 
fourth of n, and the fifth and sixth of w. 
Height, one space ; width, one-half space. 

' Xd^ The letter x is precisely like the 
lasi three lines of m or n, with the addition 
of a straight line one space in length made 
.upward from a point at base line, equally 
distant from the two points of contact of 
left curve and lower turn with base line, 
and terminating at equal distance from 
upper turn and end of right curve. Height, 
one space; width between straieht lines at 
each extremity, one-half space. This letter 
may be made without lifting the pen by 

'^Bu?i^iS.;rN™>''rT^'V°? q'V*??^ '"'"^'^ ^^^•'°^- ^'"''^."S Seofield, Penman at the Bryant. Stratton and Clark 
uusmess OoUege. Newark N. J Prof. Seofield is recogmzed as one of the leading penmen of the eounti; his writinc 

the gift of song or poesy, or the blessed gift 
of beauty. Some persons accustomed to 
every circumstance which adds to grace can 
never learn to do a graceful act. They intend, 
perhaps, to do you a kindness, aud trample 
on your feelings. They wish to ask a favor, 
and come cringing after it in a manner the 
most insulting, or stride up and demand it in 
a manner equally insulting in an opposite 
sense. He who cringes in asking a reasona- 
ble favor iufiults the pride of the party ad- 
dressed. The cringing implies expectation of 
refusal, whereas, if refusal be the expecta- 
tion, why should the favor be asked? Also, 
if the favor be reasonable, why not reasona- 
bly expect it will be grauted? If oue does 
expect a thing, why pretend the reverse? 
Also, if one has no right to ask a kindness, 
why stride up and demand it? Some people, 
with the best intentions, are born bunglers- 
They cannot say, or do, or conceive a pleasant 
thing. This is how the good man too often 
finds hia overtures in any direction scorned 
while the bad man "wins the fair lady." 
He knows ho\[> to do it, that is aU. He hides 
hie viciouenees under a seeming better than 
the reality. The awkward, good man steps 
in his own light, and puts it out with his own 
bungling. How can he help it? he knows 
no better. He lacks tact. Many a woman 
has good ability and discernment in every 

selves as angelic gi-aces. Shame-facedness at 
honorable effort, even though subject to criti- 
cism, is toadyism. Perfection is before us 
and above us to be struggled after, and not 
to be picked up at every odd corner by every- 
body without an effort. Grace is to be sought 
and studied as a fine art, but in whatever we 
do, let us be ourselves. Do not let us lie. 
Do not let us steal. Do not let us make our- 
selves awkward with pretense, hypocrisy, and 
guilt. Let us keep the grace of purity aud 
the inborn grandeur of truth. In thought, 
word and deed, m labor and in ambition 

toward s 

, let 1 

The grace of 

truth in the fine, clear eyes will atone for 
world of bungling in acts, and the strength 
of honor will be to many a remedy for awk- 
wardness. Let us make the best of our 
circumstances and ourselves. 

Madoe Maple. 

Premiums Delayed. 
Owing to a slight delay in printing a new 
edition of the Lord's Prayer, it was not 
promptly mailed to a portion of the subscri- 
bers received during the last month; we are 
now well supplied and hope in the future 
there will be no delay. 

The best armor against temptation is to 
keep out of the range of its guns. 

retracing parts of it. It may also be formed 
by uniting a left and right curve direct to a 
left and right curve reversed. 

^^n The letter o is formed by left 
curve commencing at base line and proceed- 
ing upward on connective slant to head 
line, where it is joined angularly to des- 
cending left curve, which is united by lower 
turn to right curve, joining left curve at 
head line. The letter terminates with 
horizontal right curve, one-half space in 
length. Height, one space ; width, one- 
half space. 

■^^y' _ The letter a commences at base 
line with left curve made at an angle of 
27°, uniting with a left curve, which, re- 
tracing the first one-fourth its length, con- 
tinues to base line, where it unites with a 
right curve, meeting the two left curves at 
top, from which point a straight line joins 
angularly, and proceeding to lower turn on 
regular slant is joined to a right curve, 
terminating at head line. Slant of oval 34" : 
height of letter one space ; width, one space. 

' ^^_ The letter e. begins at base line 
with right curve extending to head line on 
connective slant ; it is there united by short 
turn to left curve, which, continuing down 
ward on regular slant, crosses the first curve 

one-third space from base line, to which it 
extends, and is there united to a riglit curve 
ending at head line. Height, one space ; 
width of loop, one-fourth space. 

_ ^ -^ The letter c begins with a right 
curve extending upward nine-tenths of a 
space, uniting angularly with short straight 
line merging into loft curve, and uniting 
one-lliird space from head line, with right 
curve proceeding to head line, where, turn- 
ing short it joins left curve and continues 
to hase line, and is there joined to right 
curve on connective slant, terminating at 
head line. Height, one space ; width, one- 
half space. 

Y_-^ The letter r commences at base 
line with right curve, which continues on 
connective slant one and one-fourth spaces, 
at which poinl a slight dot is made and a 
compound curve continued nearly vertical 
to the liead line, where it is joined to a 
straight line on main slant proceeding to 
lower turn, wliich unites it to right curve 
extending to head line on connective slant. 
Height, one and one-fourtli spaces ; width 
at half the height, one-half space. 

. y/-^' The letter s begins with left curve 
precisely like r, uniting angularly at top 
with compound curve similar to capital 
stem, which diverges from the first line 
until within one tliird space from baseline, 
where, by a broad turn it touches the ruled 
line and continues upward, uniting by a 
lighl dot wiih first curve, from which dot 
the k-tter is retraced to the line and termi- 
nates wiih right curve continued to head 
line. Height, one and one-fourth spaces ; 
width, one-half spaces. 

The pupil that shall never 
until excellence has been attained, will 
practice, persistently and untiringly, all ex- 
ercises, letters or combinations tending to 
that result; and will not leave one for an- 
other simply for the sake of variety, nor 
because some other may be executed more 
easily, or with greater degree of accuracy, 
neither in the hope of receiving a higher 
mark from the teacher. 

In the preceding lessons, the exercises 
have been too numerous for immediate and 
satisfactory accomplishment, and are not 
given with any expectation that the average 
pupil will master them in the time of an 
ordinary lesson, the design of this course 
being that each lesson shall be followed by 
practice for one month. Doubtless there 
are those among the number of our pupils 
who will not be content to confine them- 
selves so long to practice of so apparently 
limited scope ; but such pupils are not of 
those who arrive at e.^cellence, neither is 
the result of this nractice so limited as may 
at first thought appear. Permit me to give 
a case illustrative of this point: While in 
Buffalo, in 18(i9, the writer of this gave les- 
sons in penmanship to a gentleman over 
forty years of age, who occu].ied a rcspon- 
Fible public position in that city, and whose 
good sense will be shown anon. A variety 
of exercises for free movement and forms 
for imitation were given him, and, among 
tlie latter, the capital stem. He seemed 
impressed with the importance of this par- 
ticular form, and although many other 
copies were afterward given, he clung tena- 
ciously to this, and for more than a month 
practiced nothing else. At the end of this 
time he had ar^piired great freedom of 
movement and cerluinty of producing uni- 
formly excclli-iit capital sti-ms; and not oidy 
this, but he, and the teaclier as well, were 
gratified and surprised to find that in this 
practice he had unconstriously gained the 
power to immediately and correctly produce 
other and dissimlar forms, and "he awoke 
one morning to find himself" not "famous," 
but a superior penman. 

It is related of Porpori. a once famous 
Italian teacher of vocal music, that ho once 
said to one of bis most gifted pupils that if 
ho felt the resolution to follow the plan he 
would suggest, he would eventually become 
a perfect singer. Tlie student signified his 
assent. " Porpori noted on a sheet of paper 
the diatonic aud chromatic scales, explained 
tlie intervals, sustaining tones, shakes, 
trills and every feature of vocalization." 
This was repeated the second year and the 
third. The fourth year the student began 

Porpori reminded him of his 
promise. The fifth year came — the same 
sheet of exercises. At the sixth they had 
not left it, but some hints on articulative 
pronunciation and declamation were added. 
At the close of the sixth year the student 
supposed he had not vanquished the ele- 
ments of the art, and was astonished when 
Porpori said, "Go, my son, I can teach 
thee no more. Thou art now the greatest 
singer of Italy and the world " The stu- 
dent was Caffarelli, once thought by many 
to have been all claimed for him by his 
instructor. The moral of this is. that even 
genius must be coupled with earnest effort 
to arrive at excellence. 

More About Bead Seats. 
Editor oftJie Pcmnmi'ti Art Journal: 

The prominent CoUeges throughout the 
country have, no doubt, been written to in 
the same manner, by the several parties re- 
ferred to in Mr. Cady's communication, as 
contained in your last issue of the Jodrnai,, 
This single instance goes to show how Com- 
mercial College men are bamboozled into 
sending specimens of penmanship to indiv- 
th fraudulent intentions, and to 
prove that this plan of scattering pen-work 
profitable, send specimens to a postal 
[ card appHcant. and the result is thot every 
boy in that vicinity will write for the same. 
It is a mistaken idea that the specimen will 
pass from hand to hand, and thus advertise 
the College sending them. On the contrary, 
the receiver of a penman's favor, having but 
httle taste or appreciation of the art, will take 
a casual glance at that which has eost time 
and effort to produce, and then cast it aside 
like a common handbill. 

A penman should put a value upon his 
skill, and instead of wasting it upon "thank 
yoTi " jobs, should devote any spare time that 
he has, after his class-room duties, to profit 
by writing resolutions, cards, &c., or in pre- 
paring something for the Jodrnal, in which 
case he will not be easting pearls before 
swine, but be letting his light shine for the 
benefit of the writing fraternity 

Institutions that make a pract. ■ ; of sending 
out specimens, not only followi injudicious 
practice, but encourage the poscil card 
ers to make a demand upon others who will 
not honor them, and thus saddle a useless 
correspondence on them, which otherwise 
would not exist were it discountenanced by 
all. Our rule is, when womed for specimens 
of writing, to send a printed notice, stating 
that we will send a small specimen only upon 
the receipt of twenty-five cents. This fur- 
nishes a test upon the siucerity of the person 
making the request, though it is at the same 
time a tax upon ourselves, as that sum will 
)t compensate us for the time and trouble 
ken even in the production of a small 

The columns of the Journal furnishes a 

ace to let light in upon impositions of this 

kind, aud it is to be hoped that others will 

ite the good example of Mr. Oady aud 

the Commercial College community the 

benefit of any knowledge they may have of 

■ ' Deadbeatism '' as he (Mr. Cady) styles it. 

Wm. H. Duff. 

basket ; but there may be an innocent and 
honest-meaning person, coming along, who 
may share the same fate of the guilty ones; 
and here is where the "rub" comes in — How 
are we to guard against such mistakes? 

I should hke very much to have you write 
up this matter fully in your paper, thereby 
rendering great good to a "plague-stricken 
fraternity." I am, as ever, yours sincerely, 


Numerous responses similar to the above 
have been received, the writers all having 
had the identical cards. We have seriously 
contemplated doing just what Prof. W. sug- 
gests, viz. : give the full names, address, 
pedigree aud history of some of the well- 
known frauds in the profession. We know 
uf several who richly deserve it, and it is 
proper that they should be known, that those 
liable to become their victims may be upon 
their guard. We have ourselves within a 
short time past, been most meanly victim- 
ized by some who have managed to win an 
enviable notoriety as authors and teachers; 
and so long as such knaves remain unexposed 
others are equally liable to be victimized. 
We are collecting some facts which will be 
pecuharly interesting to some of those fel- 
lows when we begin. We are nearly "ready 
for the charge." 

St. Louis, Mo., May 6, 187D. 
Editor of the Penman's Art Journal: 

May number at hand. The article headed 
"Deadbeats," is timel// and to the point, al- 
though a few •'Jini„7iins touches" would 
have made it stiU more valuable to honest 
len. To my sonow, I have to report 
that Mr. Jones aud myself have both been 
"/wnorcrf" with the identical requests, and, 
3 doubt, others in this city huve been 

dealt with " in a like manner. Usually I 
don't pay any attention to such "stuff," and 
let it gently enter into the waste basket; but 
this barefaced "non-explosive" cheek was 
too much for me, aud I emptied an entire 
"battery" on the writer— since then I have 

ten "let alone," 

What I desire to eay is, that such men 
should be fuUy exposed, giving their history 
pedigree and all, to servo as a lesson for 
s who may resort to such underiiauded 
ways of trying to achieve their object. 

uu daily bothered with requests for 
specimeuB. under aU sorts of pretext*, and 
generally give them the benefit of the waste 

F. P. Preuitt, Kaufman. Texas, sends sev- 
eral elegant specimens of copy writing. 

Mr. Gray, the forger, receives ten years 
fur proficiency in penmanship. 

A. E, Degler. Warren, O., incloses an attrac- 
tive and well-executed specimen of flourish- 

B. Eusink, GibbsviUe, Wis., sends some 
very creditable specimens of flourished cap- 
itals and card writing. 

A. N. Pahner, N^w Hampton, N. H., sends 
a package of well-written copy slips, also 
gracefully-written cards. 

J. M. Willey, teacher of penmanship at 
Cobb's Business College, Poinesville. O., 
writes an elegant letter. 

J. W. Pierson. Mecca, O., sends several 
slips of copy writing, which for ease of 
movement, grace and accuracy of form are 
rarely excelled. 

Jos. Poeller, Jr., Ashland. Pa., sends a 
photograph of resolutions engrossed for the 
7th Beg. N. G. of Pa., which is a very credit- 
able piece of work. 

H. C. Kendall, principal of Normal Writ- 
ing Institute, writes a very easy and graceful 
letter, in which be encloses an elegant speci- 
men of practical writing. 

P. Hammel, Cincinnatti, Ohio, sends speci- 
mens of business writing, which are models 
and excellence; also, a very graceful 

specimen of flourishing. 

S. T. Malone, Boothsville. W. V 

very attractive specimen of flourishing and | & Stratti 
of copy- 

drawing : also n 

writing, which are very creditable. 

F. J. Tolland, who is enjoying marked suc- 
cess teaching classes at Maquoketa, Iowa, 
sends a superior collection of specimeus of 
plain aud ornamental penmanship, 

G. M. Shisser is teaching writing at the 
Valley Normal Institute, Bridgewater, Va, 

P. O. Young the famous left hand writer, 
is at Camden, Me. He writes an elegant 

W. H. Kitto formeriy of Platteville. Wis., 
has gone to Soulsbyville, Cal., where he is to 
act as telegraph operator and ticket agent. 

Prof. C. H. Pierce of Keokuk, Iowa, is 
desirous of exchanging portraits with all the 
penmen of the country. He has received 
thirty eight during the past year. 

C, L. Martin, teacher of penmanship and 
phonography at Chaddock College, Qniucy III. 
also Secretary and Treasury of the college, iB 
an accomplished writer. His average speed of 
long hand is thirty words per minute, has 
rty-eight words leg-'-' 
linutes on a trial ol 
do better. 

We recently had the pleasure of a visit 
from J. W, Swank, who is the con-esponding 
clerk of the U. S. Treasury Department. 
Washington, D. C. He enjoys the reputation 
of being the best writer in the employ of the 
Government. Also a visit from M. V Casey 
who is employed in the same department. 

F. J. Tolland who is teaching large writing 
classes at Maquoketa, Iowa, is highly compli- 
mented by the press of that city, as well as 
by a committee of liis pupils. Teachers in 
the public schools commend and invite him to 
second course of instruction in that 
place. The Prof, writes with his left hand, and 
is a very skillful penman. 

Prof. E. 0. AUen, who formerly conducted 
the commercial department in the Brooklyn 
Polytechnic Institute, has leased, for a term 
of years, the Amenia Seminary.Amenia, N.Y. 
Prof. Allen is a graduate of Madison University, 
is a thorough scholar, experienced teacher, 
and a rehable gentleman. We cordially wish 
him success in this new field of labor, com- 
mensurate with his large personal merits. 

The Quincy (111.) Daily Whig of May 14th, 
says; "At the commencement exercises of 
LaGrange college, which were held a few 
days since, the honory degree of Master of 
Arts was conferred on Prof. D. L. Mussel- 
man, of the Gem City Business college. 
Prof. Musselman is eminently worthy of the 
distinction, and the college will have no cause 
to regret its action. He has devoted many 
years to the education and advancement of 
young men and women and the title accor- 
ded him could not have been conferred upon 
a more deserving person." From what we 
know of Prof. Musselman we can most fully 
endorse the good opinion of the 117//^. 

Mr. C. Claghoi-n, proprietor of the Bryant 
& Stratton Business College, Brooklyn, has 
by request of the house of Daniel Slote & Co., 
the largest blank book manufacturers in the 
country, estabhshed and assumed charge for 
them of a department of Business College 
supphes and school blanks. Although his 
College is in Brooklyn, its proximity to the 
house of D, Slote & Co., which is located in 
the lower part of New York City, makes it 
"""V to manage both euteiprises. His first 
■k has been to make up a set of blanks to 
accompany the revised edition of the Bryant 
book-keepiuK, and he has pro- 

nth the left hand, 

T. 0. Temple, a graduate of D. L. Mussel- 
man. is having good success teoching classes 
in the middle of Illinois. He is a fine writer, 
and encloses a skillfully executed specimen of 

C. L. Ricketts, who is teaching writing at 
Athens (0.) Normal School, writes a very at- 
tractive letter, in which he incloses several 
handsome specimens of plain writing and 
visiting cards. 

C. E. Cady. of Cady & Walworth's Busi- 
□ P^.-, Pnll,.f-^, V'^vm Square, New York, seuds 
ipecimeus of writing by 

I the 

ley, teacher of 

State Normal and Model School, IVeutou, 
N. J., sends specimeus written by one hun- 
dred different pupils in that school, which 
evince a remarkable degree of uniform excel- 
lence; indeed wo have never examined so 
number of specimens, from one 
school, that exhibited so good au aggregate 
result. We have long regarded Prof. Parley 
OS ^^^ n* L.-i j(^pj.g ^^^ teachers; 

lult of his iuetruc- 
r high opinion. 

■riting i 

3 of our very best 
these specimens, as the 

If the pupiU in all our normal schools 
under the tuition of equally skillful and suc- 
cesHful teachers, we should hope to see writ- 
ing in our public schools attain to, at least, a 
re8i>octable degree of excellence. Evidently 
Prof. Farley is the right man in the right 

blanks we hav 

had great exj 

the management of, Busiucw.-^ Culleges, and is 

ready to respond to nuy iuqiiiiies, not only 

with recard to the uwe of blanks, but upon 

any subject connected with business educa- 

Norwalk, O. — You write with im- 
usual ease and grace; your leading faidts are 
regularity in size of letters, aud not follow- 
ing the hne, many of the letters being half a 
space above. 

Cranbrook, Out. 
for bu.sines8 needs no critici 
graceful, rapid aud legible. As copy writing 

F. J. S,. Eaglevilie. Conn.— A. H. Hinmau 
is now leaching writing in the Bryant A 
Stratton Business School, Boston. We can 
send you the Williams &, Packard Gmde for 

$2,50. Twelve lessons will constitute Prof. 
Kelley's course iu the Joobnal, ending with 
the March uumber 1880. 

H. A. S., Syracuse, N. Y.— Do you, 
can you, give instruction by mail 'i I 
anxious to improve my writinR, and think 
fi fi-w hints from you would greatly aid 
,!/(.■(. — We have not attempted to give auy 
iiistriH-tion by mail other than the few 
r'U Ts to questions given in this column, I 
nviiii,' to a large number of requests similar 
\" yours, we will, iu future, criticise and 
iiiilo' Nuggestions for improvement, to the 
t' t of our ability, upon terms and conditions 
iiv Kit forth in an article upon the fourth 
II ;it;i' of the JoDBNAL. 

S. O. H., Baldwia, Wis. — 1. When writ- 
iric, should tht! back of the hand be turned 
upwards 80 as to be perfectly level, or should 
It lj.; iuclined towards the riglit? Ann. — 
III nrdyr that the nibs of the pen should 
1 1 il.'it vipou the paper, and each under 
III' S1LI116 degree of pressure, which is neces- 
^ M y to give a smooth, shaded line, the 
\Mist should be held in a horizontjil pos- 
iiinii; but few writers actually maintain that 
|in^ition, as it is too great a strain upon the 
imisiles of hand and wrist, but the nearer 
th ii position is kept the better for smooth 
aiil L;riic!eful writing, owing to the great dif- 
ln i.Iiy of acquiring and maintaining that pos- 
iti.iii. The obliiiUL- pen uiid bolder has been 
iiiliY),lui'.'iI, ii;j,l MiiiMuiiiii . \l.ii.sively used, 


- II si,, 

iidiug 1 

li'is/tiou giving the greatest freedom and 
I US'' of motion is that which brings Ihe pen- 
holii.r across the forefinger, about midway 
li.twL-eu the second and knuckle joint, this 
i^MMsa slant of about fifty-Jive degrees, but 
^iijci. less is required of the fingers iu the 
iii'iscle or arm movements, and the pen 
liiiviiig a greater degree of slope, moves 
till. ft' easily over the paper, and with less 
hiibility of catching and spatteiiug ; the 
holder is usually allowed to cross the finger 
aluue tlifi knuckle joint, where it is also more 
i-iisily held iu position, this gives the pen a 
.-■liJit of about forty-five degrees. 3. When 
111. muscular movement is used, should the 
s. iiii-exteuded letters aud the extended loop 
iiUi> bu made with that moveraeut? An.!s. — 
1 hi combiuatiou movemeut should be used. 
1. Wliicb is more legible and which can be 
■apidly, an upright or a slant- 

iny hand? Upright writing is most legible, 
but less rapidly executed, u. Which can bt 
WTitteu most rapidly, an au^^ulnr or a round 
hand? vl/w.— An auyular baud. 

To the Friends of the Journal. 

riuEND Ames: — The many excellent 
ti' I tares of the Penman's ART JOURNAL seem 
I" Kunmend it to every one interested in 
liriunauship throughout the country. There 
ir. siill hundreds and thousands that have 
ii-vti' seen it. I myself receive a great many 
li (his fromyoung people all overthe country 
1 ^ 1. 1 II tr if such a pajjer is published. For the 
" 111 (il of such I propose to mail one Ihou- 
■ tmi copies of the next issue to those of my 
I'll' ^pondents I know to be interested in 
■\ I iinig, and hope to secure a thousand new 
iiMiMs for you. If I can do this I shall be 
i'i\ glad, for I know you deserve all the 
■UK ess possible. Would this not be agood 
ilaiL lor other of our teachers aud penmen 
" ;i<loi>t ? Truly yours, 


\Sv think friend Gaskell's suggestion an 
VI lien tone, and shall Uake pleasure in aup- 
Kinii extra copies of either the current or 

111 buck number to those who will take 
III iiiiiiblc to use them to our advantage 

An Offer. 

To (he person who first journalizes cor- 
■L-.-tly the followiug tniusaetion, I wiU give a 

> "f Hie '■Acuouutauts' Guide," a popular 

vst, 1,1 of bookkeeping, by M. It. Johuson, 
u. boukkeepeer for Field, Leiter i: Co., 


S' lid one-half of my business to John Smith, 
vhn liL-comes a partner and shares equally iu 
[ims ami losses. I have on hand merchan- 
lis,. vriba-ii at 4^0,(100, store and fixtures worth 

H.-L.-n t,l ill piiyment — cash, $5,000; his 
lotu for bulauce, $5,000. 

G. R. Rathbun. 
Omaha, May 2(5. 187!). 

Penmen's Supplies. 
We invite the attention of penmen to our 
ui>ply Hat on this page. We shall at all 
ioKs endeavor to serve penmen desirine; 

pLai^, fLpVy^TiOfJ.VipW. 

The above cut represeul.s specimen IcUers from several pages of " Ames' New Book of 
Alphabets," just completed, and now in the hands of the binder. It will be ready to 
mail on and after May 5. Sent post-paid on receipt of $1.50. 

Send Cash vith Orders. 
All orders for books, merchandise, work 
or engraving to be sent by mail, must be ac- 
companied with the fuUamountof cash. If 
ordered to be sent by express, at least one 
half of the amount should be remitted, the 
balance C. O. D. 

On Saturday. May 24th, the students and 
faculty of the Eastman Business College, 
Poughkeopsie, went on a grand excursion 
down the Hudson and through New York 
Bay, stopping about five hours in this city. 
We return our thanks for the courteous invit- 
ation to be present, which pressure of other 
duties prevented our ac3epting. 

Somebody says very beautifully. ■• A good 
life is visible philosophy." 



upon receiving a superior article, but uijod difing bo 


AmeB' Compendliun of Ornameulal PoDmiiiishfp. 

cloth 5 00 

Ditto, halflealhermii -;1 7 nO 

Ames' Book of Ali)hi.)!.t- i bo 

Ames* Copy-SllpH for nj-i. . ■ 1 m 

practical writiug, |<<., -in 1 k- 

BOsboete { 50 full nets ..i , ,.i,, -■ 3 01) 

100 " 100 " " 5 00 

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Accounts, with Arithmetical Problems. 


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Stone clotb, one yard \4 

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Not a Revision, but an Entirely 

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ollege, Uromm 




drawing ; als 

be given 

or colon, past 





had great 

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pliy, So. The 




t improved t 











t.,»e KingslB 

nd, Steph 

206 Brottdw 
and pupllB, M 
following: W 
Ihera, Angus 

en h'. Tyng. 

. i). w 



McClenahan A. Woodruff, 

Stimpson's U. S. Treasury Gold Pens. 

'he only Gold Pens ever numbered according t 
alily. No. 1 Extra Fine, No. 2 Fine. No.! 
, No * Coarse. M each. Sent by mail or ej 
I receipt ol price. 


Forged Disguised & Anonymous Writing 

i RTISTIC PENMANSHIP.— Your name beautl- 

ples of my elegimtly wrilteu 
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tSest Known. Established, 1824 

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iiilyu.i.i , 
: pleased t 


Ornamental and Artistic 

in Practlciil, Artlstio and OrnaiiivDial Pcn- 
luiinHbip. Every department of PenmanBhip will be 
most tborougbly taught. 

special instruction Iu Designing aud ExeeiitinB Corn- 
advantages, and esp<i(ially so to those who wish to 
acquire the power to successfully execute work for 
reprodutllon by the Photo- Engraving or Pboto-Lltho. 


mnnsbip (1876). 
rbe first (o iotic 
WRITING BOOKS (1877). . 
'Since fallowed by oompetlDg a 

:ally, tbe TRUE 


The American Centennial. 


from 13 to $3, acc<.rdm; 



Capital City Commercial College, 





McClenahan & Woodruff, 

Lettering Taliiet? 


The Analytical Alphabet 
As a Self-Instructor, 

difficulty ID exccutiug tUem. Any peraon, 

Lady or Gentlemen, 

Boy or Girl, 


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.hould pl.ce 11 10 the h.udB of children. Ilcom- 

Special Inducements 

le ProptietOTB of Biisinese CollcgeB who wieh t 

Every Deecrliitlon of 

promptly and artlstlcuU; executed to order. 

, Large Flourished Pieces 

A Specially. 

Resolutions, &c., 

cngroeeed lo the beet atylo of tbe art. and at prici 
that defy competitiou. Send for eatimate. 

Private Instruction 


aofpemo.n.hlp BY MAIL. 

This Method 


Charges are Very Moderate, 

A Fine Line of 


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iugulfi>:eutiD deaigcui 

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iBltoly beautiful pieces of 
uur goQd fortuus to ml- 

20 Kemble Street, 
UTICA, N. s 

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Every Variety of Pen Woik Promptly Execated in the Most Perfect Manner 
Also, Counsel given as Expert on Hand Writing and Accounts. 


; lihely ti ' 

, By usiDg I 

upUcatea In Elertrotyp 

e giving 01 



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n; Series of 

bcHnnii PENS 




oppearH In a new and attractive typogrupbical 
and greatly improved in up[>eurauce. 



bigber grades of public and private echools, and 
York, and H. B. Bryant, Chicago. Price, by 

ulred work in buelneaa colicgea sud high flchoola 

Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., 

;t 138 aDd 140 Grand St., New York. 


en and B 

nt by mall at tbe 


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Springfield, 0. 


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ufliucas CollegcH. 

50 g^d,^e^'ver74hit, 
ManoiiviUe. Onondsga Oo 


end indelible). 



Bud elegant picture, showing all pro- 



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can find a teacber qualified in Plain und Ornameulul 
Peumansbij), Book-keeping, tbe Commou Brancbee, 

ions, elephants, deer, ftc, 

! fiouriehed speci- 

What Everybody Wants. 

I receipt of prices auaesed, I will sen 

1 Specimen Sheets of Engroeeing eaob 

a Centennial Chart Illustrating 
aid.— BiOou. John A. Dix. 

place in eve 



iig Monday, July 7, 1879, and continuing four weeks. Wbelber you wish to attend or not, send 
Address L,. 8. I'HOMi'SON. La Fayelle, Ind. 



laa and 140 Grand h 



j'^^RNAMENTAU '^^JpfN^^^^^ 

Publirslied aiontlily, at aOG Broadivoy, *oi- SBl.OO p«!i- "i', 

■■ Enured at the PoHl Office uf Km Y«rk, X. }'., im seaiiid ehisa vuMer." 


VOL. III. NO. 12. 


CuuDScI givpii as Expert on Haudwriting. 



THOMAS M\Y PBIRCB, M. A., Principal, 
33 South Tenth Street, PbUidelpliiu. 


NBW BN<JI,..\ 



GE0R<;B itlOORE, 

Iiy Book Busji-ttver, Bird on 1 Pan F 

The Writinff Class. 

" Cliildren I wish to tell you three thingB 
about the Capital Stem iu ^, N, M. 

'/ .a'. '.,<„ '.// 

'^.—^ /.-—// ,-'— ///;— //^ 

-Cy( yp-i. yk ysry 

It iu of full height, well sluuted, and the 
upper half but slightly curved," illustratiog 
OQ the board. " You will have to try mauy 
times before you oau write it to suit you ; 
but each time you trj- is ouo step towards 
doiug it. If you know just huw it ought to 
made, that will help you to make it," 

"After you write the Capital Stem, you 
have only to miike a slight lert-curve, on 
main slant, from the upper point down to 
base, to have the body of A. You see that 

the long curves form a Bharp upper angle. 
Be sure to keep tbe Hues open from the very 
top, and do not widen tbe letter too muuh- 
Then begin the crossing-curve, at just tbe 
height of small r or s, on the last curve : 
carry tbe line down through middle of letter ; 
let it cross lost curve at height of half u 
space, and end at height of a whole space.' 
carefully illusfcr<tting its course. " This cross, 
iug-curve is the lower part of an oval, lie- 
member this when you write it, and try to 
have it please your eye," 

I next erase this cbarncteristic part of A, 
and finish the last curve with the shortest 
possible turn at base, and then carry up a 
slight left-curve to two-thirds the height of 
letter. TUe children recognize N, and it all 
seems like play to make one letter out of 
another. I tell tbem that tbe last curve of N 
bows forward a little to he gi-aceful. The 
distauces across the middle of tbe letter are 

I now remove fiual curve of iV, and from 
the turn at base make a slight curve clear to 
top, on the same slant as Capital Stem ; from 
this point I make a long left-curve, on main 
slant, nearly to base, add a short turn, aud 
fiuish with a right-curve at height of one 
space, aud one spaoe to right of main line, 
'■What lettei is this, children ?" They ex- 
claim, "'Crtpital J/." Make the distance 
between the upper points one spac^ ; keep 
tbe three distances even across the middle of 

JV^ote. — It will be seen that the alternate 
curves of M slant alike. The sbiut of the 
Capital Stem is a critical poiut in this group 
of letters- The second line being upon main 
slant, and united augularl.v to the first, sym- 
metry requires that the Capital Stem should 
be on increased slant — if on tbe same slant, 
the two lines would coincide. 

1 letters, T and F 

Tbe framework of t-bese letters is tbe Capital 
Stem. But it is shorter by half a space than 
in tbe first group, and bestues it curves more 
The base-oval in 7* is just tbe s.ime as iu .4, 
N, M. But see bow different it i« in F. 
Here the upper line of the oval combines the 
left and rigbt-curves, and becomes a real 
Line of Beauty, This Line of Heauty is 
carried clear across tbe Stem, and a little to 
right of it forms a sharp angle with a tiny 
straight line," illustrating each step. " You 
can always tell tbe written letter by this cross, 
as you can always tell the printed oue by a 
similar mark. T and F are so nearly alike 
that when you learn one you have almost 
learned tbe other. There is a sort of cap 
that finishes both letters. It is just a small 
looped-oval and curve- You begin the cap- 
oval at height of two spaces, pretty well to 
left of Stem ; carry it a little above height of 
tbree spaces, and bring to tbe right-curve of 
oval within a ba^f-space of Stem ; let the in- 
side curve wind through the center, crossing 
the oval a little below top, and combine with 
a long double-curve to tbe right, thus. Name 
this curve." The silence is ominous of fail- 
ure. " Why, children, it is just the same as 
tbe top of tbe base-oval in /<',- now think." 
' ' Oh ! it is tbe Line of Beauty," cries out one 
little pupil, aiid all the others agree. " Have 
tbe highest poiut of the double-curve directly 
over the top of Stem, and carry tbe curve 
about two and a half spaces to right of oval." 

these letters, children ? 

of the Bcript lines, and change 
others just enough to briug out the Italic 
likeness. Next, write the Capital Stem sep. 
arately, and show how it is modified ; that 
the main pari is shorter, and a single curve. 
"The base oval is not changed; but to give 
a finished look to the Stem, we begin the 
letter with this introductory right curve, 
which unites with the Stem in a sharp angle. 
Observe how tbe curve droops at first. The 
second part of 11 is a long left-curve, which 
begins at full height, two spaces to right of 
Stem, and extends on main slant to base. 
Tbe upper part is well curved. The crossing, 
curve is tho aime as in A, Tbe width of H 
at center is a little less than a spa^e." A 
critical point is not to unduly widen tbe 
letter, which destroys its unity. 

Second part of K begins at same point as 
in H, with a slight double curve on counect- 
iug-slant; combines at center of letter, in a 
narrow loop, with a Sfcond double curve 
nearly vertical ; and finishes with lower turn 
.sud.'injfjt.fiurve, ftsio small k. The loop in- 
tersects Capital Stem, aud is at rigbt-atigles 
to maiu slant. Illustrate to tbe class how tbe 
two double-curves form tbe same characteris- 
tic part as iu the itaUc letter; that the script 
curves mean just the same as tbe straight 
lines of the Italic. LBt the pupils analyze 
tbe double-curves. 

O begins with an introductory right-curve 
on couuecting slant. This curve combines 
in a narrow turn at top with an incomplete 
oval, which extends downward two spaces, 
and then rihps to half the height of letter ; 
at this poiut tbe oval unites angularly with 
the Stem, The long sweeping curve which 
begins 0, form?, with the left curve of oval, 
a loop, the intersecting point of which is a 
little above height of one space. The Capi- 
tal Stem is a single curve, and half the height 
of letter. Iu U the Stem is the character- 
istic part, and tbe looped-oval forms the body 
of the letter, as will be seen by comparison 
with the Roman letter. The main part of G 
is simply au incomplete oval. A vertical 
line drawn through top of 3:em illustrates tbe 
division of the oval. — Primary Teacher. 

TeachiDg' FenmansMp. 
Business Colleoe, Union Square, J 
New York, Nov. 24, 18711, >" 
Editor Penman's Art Jo'irna/ : 

Dear Sib : After all the discussion that has 
taken place the whole truth has not been 
reached as to bow best to teach penmanship 
to beginners in Business Colleges. Some 
hold to tbe strict analysis of a system ; others 
put the student on movement exercises of 
various kinds, followed by a drill on the 
capital letters singly, till some proficiency 
has been reached ; while another class tries 
to develop ability by correctiug the most 
prominent faults of the individual whatever 
they may be. 

It seems to me thai any considerable drill 
on analysis at tbe out«iet leads the learner to 
think that form is all important. " So wide " 
aud "so high" become his law, to the ex- 
clusion of the free movement which is to 
follow, and without which he cannot become 
a good businesii writer. 

On the other hand any considerable drill on 
i, for the development of the arm 

', without some attention to analy- 
sis, is sure to make inveterate floiurishers. 
Students, under this kind of iustniction, are 
likely to make good capitals because of the 
smoothness of thei -writing, but their small 
letters will be defective from lack of uniform- 
ity. It is this style of teaching that brings 
out tbe exceptionally few good writers of a 
class. They are called the '■ natural " writers. 
They may have unusual steadiness of nerve, 
a good idea of form, or they may he mere 
imitators. This is not the teaching however 
that develops the most talent of the greatest 

It is probable that a person will do that 
kind of work best which he likes best; there- 
fore I have found it wise to allow the student 
to write on books soon after entering upon 
his course of study. If this is done the 
metbod of improving bis style of penmanship 
at oiict: becomes all important. I have suc- 
ceeded best by allowing him to write what- 
ever copy the regular class lesson might be, 
devoting a part of the hour to preUminary 
principles or exercises; afterward caUing his 
attention to special faults, one at a time so as 
not to confuse his luiud nor burden his 
memory. For example, be shades every 
downward line, ir hia loops are too long, or 
bis slope is irregular, or his spacing bad. 
Any of these faults cau be remedied to a 
great extent in a very few lessons. After a 
little drill of this kind it is easy to decide upon 
the next step. If he is attentive to the in- 
struction given, movement exercises may 
follotv or he taken in couuection with these 
lessons of forms, and so smoothness and 
speed, with correct outline, can be learned 
together. If he is careless, and form, space 
and slope am still defective, definite analysis 
must he taught, and individual faults corrected 
bufore advaucemeut is allowed. He must 
learn that small u is not n ; that ii has no 
book at the top ; tbat ( aud d should not be 
heavy in the middle, tapering towards both 
ends ; that the loop.s should not be four or 
five times the height of the small letters ; 
that capitals /and (/do not loop at the top, 
&o. , &,c. All these points, and many others 
equally simple as the writing teacher knows, 
are easily learned and go far toward making 

I would by no means tbrow flv/ay analvsis 
uor would I make it the iihief f^:ature of in- 
struction to classes above the elementary 
grades; but if students show a total disre- 
gard of proportion they should be taught 
that penmanship is an exict science, and that 
the forms of letters are uo more to be disre- 
garded than those of geometry. Mistakes iu 
percentage are not condoned ; neither should 
those of penmanship be overlooked. 

If the ground I have taken is wrong I hope 
that discussion will thereby be provoked, aud 
tbat some of tbe numerous penmen who read 
the journal will set me right. 

Yours, respectfully, C. E. C-U)Y. 

Index to the Joarual 

On another pageof this issue will be found 
a complete alplmbetical index to arliclea 
tbat have appeared iu volumes I U iiud HI. 
This index is thus given em ire, because of the 
omission to publish one for each volume at its 
close. Hereafter tbe different numbers of the 
JouBNALwill be paged continuously, and an 
alphabetical index given in the last number 
of each volume, which will add greatly to its 
for reference. 

iug the cause as au author. We sincerely 

trust that time will deal with him propitiously ^ 

and reward him commenBurably to his emi- (T^ 

t labora. ' r^ 

CSigued) "L. L. SPBAGUE. (^ 

J. Cagle received the silver medal oflfertd 
by the North Georgia Agriculturnl Associatiou. 
at its fair recently held at Atlanta, (ia , for ; 
the best specimen of practical penmanship. , 

S. R. Webster is teaching writing in the 
Spencerian Business College, Cleveland. Ohio- 
Mr. Webster wields a master's p^n. 

The Crestou (Towa) OawHe says: "Pro- 
fessor Mehiin is winning golden opinions on 
the effectiveness of his work this year. There 
is no branch in our public schoolB more im- 
portant than penmanship. 

M. G. Emersou who has recently been 
teaching writing in the Gem City- Busioess 
College, of which he is a graduate, has ac- 
cepted a position in the Bank of Creston. 

M. H. Kitto. formerly ticket agent aud 
telegraphist at Ishpeuniug, Mich., is now 
aesist-^nt book-keeper for the Saginaw Min- 
ing Company at Stiiieville, Mich. Mr. Kitto 
is ft tiut^ business writer, and will undoubted- 
ly win favor in his new position. 

P, B. Davis, who has been for some months 
under the tuition of Messrs. Soulu and FHck- 
inger at Phila. Pa., writes one of the most 
elegant letters we have received. He is open 
for a ' 

GuB. Hulsizfr, Toulon, III., sends a unique 
design, in which a body of flourishing forms 
the outline of a bounding stag, which with 
the accompanying scroll and lettering i 
tutes a very attractive and skillful piece of 
work. He also inclosts a package of his fancy 
card writing, which are not often excelled. 

Charles D. Bigelow, teacher of writing at 
Bryant's Business College, Buffalo, N. Y., 
sends an exquisitley written letter in which he 
incloses equallyexcellent specimens of flourish- 
ing and card writing. 

C. H. Hills, penman at Mansfield, O., Nor- 
mal College, sends a gracefully executed speci- 
men of flourishing, and several well written 

S. M. Philadelphia, Pa. 
plain the ftirt that, tiii'p on 
of penmaushiii .-iliilr n\>«a 
only, 1^1 invminl,ly U-..V 

will furnish the best of referenci 

The.^?AHmof Pen Art for October 
tains in full, the admirable paper upon Iheo- 
ralim Art and Ai-tiWic Pcnmamldp." read 
by F. W. H. Wieaehahn before the B. C. T. 
& P. Association at its conveuiion held at 
Clevelaud, O., in August lust. It is au able 
and valuable paper. 

How do you ex- 
; of ten professors 
the fourth finger 

ii'l fourth fingers : 

1. We do not admit the fact, as claimed, 
we believe that the majority of penmen 
wiil rest the hand ■ 
fourth fingers which 

book-keeping as wfll as practical aeemiul- 
lints who are subscribers to the .Iox;i{n'ai.. 
All parties interested in such a departnunt 
;irc retinesled to forward practical probh lus 
fur solution, or information or suggestions 
appropriate and interesting for this depMrt- 

No Personal Matter in the Journal. 

In one or two instances eommunicationa 
have been inadvertently admitted to the col- 
umns of the JoDRNAi., somewhat personal 
in their character. We hereby give notice 
that henceforth we shall' guard zealously its 
columns against anything personal 
uatiug. Correspondents will pic; 
this in mind, thereby saving their o' 
and us from the unpleasantness of 
their conimui 

;c bear 



Towaseud who has been 
n St. Paul, Miun., during four yea s 
purjioses to spend the winter traveling. 

teaching wTitiug and filling orders for 

1 cards, &c. Mr. Townst-ud is a su- 

writer and will undoubtedly do honor 

profession at whatever he undertakes. 

eciuiens go into our best scrap book. 

The first premium for best pen aud ink 

■ ■ ■ ' J. W. Swank at the 

eutly at Washington, 

sketch was awarded 
National Fair held 
D. C. 

Z. T. Loer formerly teacher of writing in 
t'le Normal school, Lebanon, 0. has recent- 
ly opened a Normal Writing Institute in 
that place He is a good writer and will 
undoubtedly deserve suci-ess 

Louis Aladarasz formerly at Rochester 
ie now teachmg writing at Gabk(.lls Busincbs 
College Manchestei Is 11 His letters and 
specimens of carj writing are among the 
moat easy and graceful that come into our 

lament, when they 

us an ek^anth wutteu letle 
list of hubsciiben, to the I 
nothiug from its apueatai 
others will add a like 
display their skill 

G. J Amidou of Lee 
teaching writing at Carter s Bubinebb College 
Pittsfield, Mash Mi Amidou 
writer and a populai ttather and will piove 
a valuable acquisitu ~ 

F. r Judd lb teachin^ wntm^ at Jen 
nings' Seminary Aurora, 111 His letters 
and specimens inclosed are vt,rj gracefullj 

Mr. A H Stephenson late of Stanstead 
Wesleyan College, Quebec, has been ap- 
pointed to a position in Wright's Business 
College, Brooklyn. N. Y.. and will enter 
upon his duties January Ist Mr. Stephen- 
son is a skillful penman and comes io the 
city highly recommended as a teacher of 
commercial aud academic studies. 

N. S. Beardsley is teaching writing in the 
schools of Youugstown, Ohio. He is a good 
, and, we judge, doing very successful 

Paragraphs " Approuriated.' 

It is often ;5aid that penmen are not liberal 
one toward another— that envy and jealousy 
are aroused whenever one of their number ia 
mentioned approvingly, thus retaining in 
force the truth of the sayiug "two of a trade 
can never agree ;" but I havu found that 
whenever they meet they always extend the 
write hand of fellowship. 
Although disposed 1o accredit the craft with 
generosity and luagoauimity yet I 
that was somewhat incon- 
iderate — in other words possessed of 
Qsufticient forethought. 


the consider- 
ed being $10,- 

is iiintle t 
light hnv. 

Tht above cuts are Photo Engiaved from our onn pen and ink copj and 
specimens of lettering and drawing the tints are ruled with our patent hpaciug T squi 
prepared two other cuth similar to the above of the denominations of five and ten cent 
printing fractional currency to bt used in the piactical departments of businei 
prepared to either furnish the currency or duplicate euU. The ci 
ied upon any common printing press, and would be found 

regular electrotypes, 
nieut and valuable ti 
ktalogue.s and college papers'&c, illustrating the practical departments. Proofs of the four c 
will be sent on application: also estimates given for any similar work to be executed to c 

* teacher. 

L. L. Williams. President of the Rochester 
(N. Y.) Business Univei-sity, writes an ele- 
gant letter, and promises a contribution to 
the columns of the Journal soon. 

The Detroit Michigan Daily Post of No- 
vember 10th, closes a long review of the emi- 
nent services in behalf of (education rendered 
to the State of Michigan by Professor Ira 
Mayhew, LL. D., with the following min- 
utes prepared by a committee appointed for 
that purpose by the oonvaution of B. 0. T. 
& P, Association at the close of its session 
held at New York in 187f>. 

' New Yo 

, Augui 

„ t 10, 1878. 
i with the greatest pleasure that we 
welcome to the ranks of our association the 
Hon. Ira Miiyhew, LL. D., whose early labors 
in the cause of public education, prominently 
as superintendent of public instruction for 
the State of Michigan for several terms, were 
so efficient, and who later in life has so be- 
fittingly devoted his ripened abilities to the 
cause of busiuees education, especially aerv- 

Lyman D, Smith, teacher of writing and 
dmwing in the Public Shcools of Hartford, 
Conn., sends an elegant written tetter. It is 
of two-fold interest as it announces Prof. 
Smith as a future contributor to tho columns 
of the JODBNAL, and will be a conspicious or- 
nament in our scrap-book. 

A. A. Clark, teacher of writing in the 
schools of Cleveland, 0., writes a handsome 
lettet aud incloses some elegantly written 

S. C. Maloue, Smithtown, Va., sends a 
package of well written copy-slips, and sev- 
eral specimen sheets, of elaborate and skill- 
fully executed flourishing and drawing. Mr. 
Malone is about to open classes at Morgan- 
town, W. Va, We wish him success as he 
will undoubtedly deserve it. 

Benj. Rusink, Gibbsville, Wis., inclosu.i in 
a well written letter several creditably writ- 
Jon. Foeller, Jr,, Ashland, Fa., incloses in a 
splendidly written letter a package of speci- 
mens of flourishing taken from a multiplying 

contracted letters ? Because the loop 
shoulder of the r and point at the top of the 
6 are mere extensions beyond the body of the 
letter, and if brought within the ordinary 
space of the small letters would so diminish 
the body of the letter as to cause it to appear 
greatly disproportionate to the other con- 
tracted letters. 

Catalogues and papers have been received 
from several colleges which want of space 
prevents noticing in the present issue. 

Department of 6ook-keepin|r and 

In the tirst No. of Vol, IV, we shall open 
a department in the Journal not to exceed 
in any case two columns of space, to be de- 
voted to the above named subjects. We are 
led to do this by the earnest solicitations of 
the many authors, teachers and pupils of 

HvuidtJ by rt littlf 

A little forethought should also have 
prevented the bad spell of the pen- 
who wrote " We are having 
hellthy wether out here. " No doubt 
it would have been well for him if, 
in his youth, he had received the 
now give postage 
he would have been licked, 
put in a corner, aud made to stick to 
the letters. Perhaps the superior qniU- 
driving among us is owing to the 
method of treatment. 
And, by the way, speaking of quill- 
driving reminds ub that the quill or 
the steel pen may be diiven but the 
pencil does best when it is lead. And 
speaking of the lead pencil suggests 
the interrogatory, whv are not all 
pencil manufacturers Peocilvanians ? 

Having spoken thus wisely of pens 
and pencils, let us see what may be 
said of ink. 

"Ink can be preserved from mouli 
by putting a clove in the bottle," 
When Mrs Spriggina, wife of Sprig- 
gins of the Morning Awakcncr, read 
the above she eritd excitedly, "There 
I know what Mr. Spriggins al- 
ways carries cloves in his pockets 
for!" And the good old unsuspect- 
ing soul looked as pleased as if she 
had just heard of a new way of put- 
ting up barberries. Cloves may pre- 
vent ink from moulding, but what 
shall prevent flooding the market with 
abominable solutions, infusions and 
decoctions misnamed inks. We can 
find no ink answering the require- 
ments of penmen— jet black and free- 
flowing, and even the most intelli- 
gent coroners have as yet been unable 
to find any although they" frequently 
hold a coroner's ink quest. 

As we have revealed that which 
will be of great benefit to the profes- 
sion iu regard to the teacher of pen- 
manship, the pen, pencil and ink we 
uow lack but paper, ard we feel 
confident that the reader will not hesi- 
'"" tate to decide that we merit the fools- 

cap and will see that we are supplied. 

Having the materials now for work, let us 
have some of the letters of the alphabet. 
Many persons make no distinction in form of 
/^and-A Now write with blue ink and tell 
me should there not be a markt-d (hflerence 
between a blue / and a blue /. What would 
Julia think were you so muLkikd thiit jou be- 
lieved them equally worthy of ftilniimtion. 
Be afthcr making of the K su it is a Kay 
' to the resht of the worrud, begitrm and don't 
forgit it is loike a pig's tall because it's the 
end of pork. 

Do not make O so as to disappoint your 
teacher and cause him to give its name in a 
disapproving long-drawn-out manner, ueith- 
er the Ji so as to produce sitiiilar exclama- 
tion. Tell the cook the best way to make tea is 
T ; and finally may you B busy as B's iu every 
good cause and never get half C's over. May 
you keep your consciences ever at E's and 
your eyes upon a mark much higher than 
the flight of the J's, that you may escape 'L; 
May you never O any one, but be a P Q li R 
people, zealous of good works. May yoa 
drink uothinji stronger than T, and may U 
sometime find a clergyman who for a V will 
W with another Xactly as Y Z as yourself 
and may you i 
alphabet to th 


Admiral Goldsboroiigb wns a bluff old seA 
dog, and hated sbam and pretence. An airy 
young diplomat, a great mnn of society and 
fashion, called on the admiral, and findiog 

thereby, and vhen the young man accosted 
him OD the street and asked, " Did you get 
my card admiral V" be eliouted out. "Yesl 
and what's the meaning of E. P. that yon 
it?" "Oh, why that means m. 
pernonne, that I called in person," "It 
does, ehl" said the admiral, and went off in 
a mood of disgusted meditation. In a few 
days he returned the call by sending his card 
around by a messenger, first writing S, B. N. 


originally intended 

been considered a 

received my card, did you 'I" inquired the ad- 
miral. " Yes, and what does S. B. N. mean ? 
asked the polite young man. "Sent by a 
nigger !" thundered the admiral. 

We are now so far advanced in penmanship 
that its complete modus operandi is so famil* 
iar to US as to be almost automatic. This 
leaves time to investigate the origin of lan- 
guage even anterior to wriling as n means ot 
conveying thought; and by careful research 
we have discovered that spoken language was 
first mtroduced to this world during Adam 
and Eve's first quarrel when one w ord 
brought on anotber. 

The first attempts at writing were rude 

pictures of familiar objects used as signs of 

ideas Afterward these signs bore less and 

less resemblance to the objects tbey were 

represent, and in an 

e of them would have 

:ry bad sign, but at the 

3t sign known is to sign 

We have in this very exhaustive cyclopaedia 
of pen lore antedated the origin of written 
sidered the qualities of the 
leather of penmanship, the materials with 
which he is enabled to easily acquire untold 
le manner in which it is done. 
We have now but to speak of rapidity of ei- 
m and our task is ended. Of course, 
things being equal, the palm must be 
given to that person or class of persons who 
shall execute work in the minimum of time. 
Innumerable experiments have been conduct- 
ed under the most varying circumstances 
uniform result and the decision must 
be considered final, that female copyists 
[ more rapidly and for the very conclu- 
reason that tbey are always anxious to 
the last word. 

The Illustration 
given upon this page is photo- 
rom an original pen-and-ink speci- 
iir own design aud execution ; the 
of the original is 28x48. We have the 
bthographed and printed upon good 
paper 24xH2 inches in size, a copy of which 
will be hereafter mailed to every person send- 
ing m his renewal or subscription for the 
Journal; or should they choose the " Lord's 
Prayer" 19x24 or "Centennial Picture of 
Progress," 22x2$ inches in size, they can have 
their choice by stating it with their subscrip- 
tion or all three of the premiums for fifty 
cents additional to the regular subscription. 
Either of the premiums arc richly worth the 
price of the subscription ; should any of our 
patrons desire a duplicate of the cut, they can 
have tlie same with any part of the matter, 
not desired, omitted, for $7.20; the scrolls 
can be mortised at twenty cents each addi- 

Glossy Ink. 
A rich gloss may be imparted to any 
riting ink by addiag to the ordi- 
nary cone bottle a small quantity of gum- 
arabic or white sugar. Caution must be 
on much sugar will leave the 
uk sticky whou ilry, and too much of either 
jum or siigur will destroy the flow of the 
of the glossy ink advertised and 
sold for that peculiar simply com- 
ink treated as above. Davids' School 
Ink or Maynai'd and Noycs' thus treated 
makes a fine ink for apccimeii work. 

Will they Explain ? 
A recent subscriber to the Joukn.\l from 
Rochester, N. Y., says; "I have just re- 
ceived a copy of the Jouhnal, and I waa 
surprised that the penmen of Rochester 
should run it down." The columns of the 
Journal are open for their explanation ; 
perhaps they can thereby assist us in our 
endeavor to make it worthy of their dis- 
criminating judgment and high apprucia- 

it* 00 SHB 00 tl5l 


lenmansliip ever pubHst 

d office order or by 

fty. Now Y.rk. U 
eery diatinetly. 


Vol. IV of the JoQrnal. 

What tlie Joi'itNAi. Iiiis beeu bilheito, its 
rcadi-rs an& patrons know. Whut it will be 
in the future, tbey can only judge by tbe 
past, and its promises. We trust that its 
course in tbe past will in some measure 
giveweigbt to its promises for the future. 
We have reason to believe that very few of 
tbe present subscribera or contributors to 
the columns of tbe Journal will fail to 
continue their patronage and support during 
the future, while we have positive assurance 
from a lar^e mimber of noted teachers, au- 
thors and writers, who have not thus far 
conlribule.1 to its columns, that tbey will 
do so during tbe coming year; these added 
to our present contributors, and the greater 
experience of its editors, are sufficient to 
warrant us in tbe assurance to our readers 
that tbe Journal in the future will very 
far excel the past. 

Among the promised contributors are 
such well-known authors, teachers and art- 

ists as S, S. PiK-kai<l. Ifou, Ira Mnybcw, K. 
G. Foleom, Dr. J. C Bryant, H. C. Spencer, 
George W. ElliotI, Joel 11. Barlow, L. L. 
Williams, A. P. Root. N. S. Beardsley. 
Robert 0. Spencer. G. A. Gaskell. Charles 
French, G. H. Sbattuck, L. L. Sprague, D. 
L. Miissehnan, C. C Cochran, William H. 
Sprague, A. II. Ilinman, William H. Duflf. 
Thos.MayPeirce, H. C. Wright. P. H. Smith, 
J. W. Van Sickle, J W. Payson, Seldeu R. 
Hopkins. H. B. McCreary, W. H. Kibbe, 
Hiram Dixon, A. D.Will, Rev. N. R. Luce, 
Uriah McKee. C. C. Clsighorn, A. W. Tul- 
bolt. J. E.Soule, C. E. Cudy. William Allen 
Miller, J. H. Lauslcy, W. L. Blackmnn, A. 
C. Cooper, G. R. Rathbuu. H. C. Clark, A. 
J. Warner. J. T. Knauss, T. J. Brynut. 
Jackson Cagle, L. D. Smith, A. A. Clark, 
P. W. H. Wiesehabn, A. W. Randall. T. J. 
Stewart, Frank Goodman, A. W. Mad- 
ison. W. H. Lothrop, S. R. Webster. 
"Madge Maple," " Paul Pastnor," "Pen- 
stork" and others; with such a corps of cor- 
respondents and our own assurance that we 
shall spare no labor or pains to render the 
Journal in the highest degree interesting 
and valuable; ciin any one have doubts re- 
garding its future prosperity? If it could 
survive and even prosper during the three 
years of general depression, added to the 
slow and hesitating support of would-be 
patrons, doubtful of its coutinuance, may 
we not safely predict that, with the grand 
and rising tide of general prosperity and 
the full confidence and support of all the 
friends of its specialties, the Journal is 
destined to achieve an enviable success and 
take rank among the best and most ■widely- 
circulated class periodicals of tbe land, and 
contribute largely to the dignity and honor 
of the professions it represents. 

What the JonrnaL has Pone and Is 

With the next issue The Joubnal enters 
upon its foiivth volume, and attains to an 
age more veneiable than, and a dogi-ee <)f 
siwcess (piite beyond that ever reached 
by any other penmen's paper. 

From the first advent of such a paper it 
has been a dovibtful question whether the 
profession would or could eustain a distinct- 
ively penmanship pM|iri ,:(ih1 ;iv f.u h mh r.-s- 
sive effort wasiLi:Hlr iuhI l:iilr,],llir.tMul.'l UilS 
streugtbened- Ami :ilii i Un' :iMi--.i;iim| fur 
a time the most iPininisiiig nt liinn ail, ibe 
Penman's Qazdte disappeared, there seemed 
to be a settled conviction that a precarious 
existence and early death awaited all similar 
undertakings. This belief created a distrust 
and in some instances a repugnance to pen- 
men's papers, difficult to overcome, and 
which led many penmen who had glad- 
ly and hopefully given their support to 
others, to withhold the same from the Jour- 
nal ; indeed, some of our professional 
friends said to us ;il lb..- uutsut ibat while 
ibcy would ui.l, i,> -,..,. -ii-hMiir.] ;,Md ibem- 
SL-lveslo patn.iii/r mi< I, ;i p:,|uT, IJir-y dare 
n<itcnrotirage Ibi- irndtTt^ikin-, and so stood 
aloof; others ventured to send tbe price 
monthly, some waited six months, some a 
year, others longer before venturing to risk 
a year's subscription in advance, but the 
fears of one after another have been over- 
come and their patronage secured, until 
there is now scarcely a half dozen of writing 
teachers of repute in the United States and 
Canada whose names are not upon the sub- 
scription list of the Journal, to say nothing 
of the thousands of unprofessional teachers 
of writing in public schools, pupils and ad- 
mirers of writing throughout tbe country. 
And it is with pride that we now see the 
Journal in spite of all opposition and luke- 
warmness, take rank among the recognized 
and successful periodicals of the day. It 
enters upon its fourth volume with hope 
strengthened by increasing prosperity. Nor 
is it for itself alone that tbe Journal has 
won success. It has done more than all 
other agencies during the same period to 
awaken and maintain a general interest in 
writing; it has been chiefly instrumental in 
gathering a large number of professional 
teachers and authors of writing together 
for the first time in a convention, that re- 
sulted in the formation of an association of 
teachers of writing and practical education, 
which, if we mistake not, is destined in the 

futuie to exert a most potent ii: ucnce for 
the advancement of these important depart- 
ments of modrni education. In addition 
to this, tlie Journal is furnishing an in- 
valuable medium to the profession for in- 
tercommunication of thought, and valuable 
information which tends to cultivate ac- 
quiiinlauce and a mutual and friendly spirit 
- quite the reverse of what formerly exist- 
ed, and which is very essential to the honor 
and sviccess of the profession. 

Experts on Handwriting;. 

The frequency with which c!is<vs have 
rccentlyariscn in conrtsof justice involving 
questions relating to the genuineness of 
handwriting, has called into seivice a class 
of persons known as experts in handwrit- 
ing. In some instances these persons have 
exhibited most remarkable power for close 
analysis and scientific examination into tbe 
distinguishing characteristics of writing, 
revealing many facta wholly unnoticed by 
the common observer, and thus rendering 
material service to court and jury, so much 
so as to carry the conviction that expertism 
was indeed a science. While others, by 
their unscientific and blundering opinions 
or guessing, have failed to impress court or 
jury favorably with that class of evidence, 
often leaving the impression that their 
OPINION was only a "guess" which could 
be had for a fee by whichever side first ap- 
plied. Such apparent want of the requisite 
scientific knowledge or of high-toned in- 
tegrity on the part of so-called experts has 
in many instances brought the very idea of 
export testimony into utter contempt by 
court and jury. 

Undoubtedly there are instances when it 
is very difficult, and may be quite impos- 
sible for the most skilled expert to form a 
well-grounded opinion, clear of doubt re- 
gardinglhegenuinenessof handwriting, but 
in tlie great majority of cases a thoroughly 
scientific and experienced examinci -il" 
writing will be able, not only to relit\r in- 
own mind of doubt regarding its ginmnr 
ness, but to so present facts and reason ^ ;i- ii> 
materially aid the court or jury in reaching 
a just verdict. 

There pre a great variety of cases which 
call for the services of an expert, such as 
the forgery of signatures, disguised and 
simulated writing, alterations of written 
documents, &c. 

Perhaps the most difficult and unsatisfac- 
tory of all cases in which the expert is 
called is where simply a skilfully executed 
signature is called into question, Often this 
class of forgeries are perpetrated by persons 
who are themselves experts as skillful and 
experienced as those who are called upon 
to detect them. All the knowledge and 
methods known to the expert are employed, 
not alone in executing the forgery, but in 
the use of safe-guards against detection and 
proof. In many such cases i( is ditlicult, 
and in some well niffh impussiblc, fui' the 
most skilled expert to determine beyond 
grave doubts regarding their genuineness. 
Yet, however skillful a forger may be it is 
rare that he will not overlook some point 
or habit in the genuine upon which he will 
fail, and which will be apparect to the 
really skilled expert. This class of expert 
work is usually most difficult aud unsatis- 
factory, because of the generally limited 
amount of writing brought into question 
from which he can make comparison, and 
upon which base an opinion. 

In disguised und simulated writing there 
is usually a greater bulk of material, there- 
by presenting a much better opportunity 
for studying the habits and characteristics 
of tbe writers, in most instances enabljjQg 
the expert to reach a decisive and satisfac- 
tory conclusion. 

Webelieve.thatwitb very rare exceptions, 
adults are as thoroughly personified in, and 
can as easily be identified by their hand- 
writing as by their physiognomy, and that 
they cannot, in any extended piece of writ- 
ing, 80 change or modify the same, ("and re- 
tain at all the character of writing,) as to 
wholly escape the force of habit and conceal 
theirown identity. Long habit places the pen 
in acertain position in the hand, and its nibs 
in a certain position and angle upon the pa- 
per, causing it to make a peculiar quality of 

line or shade. Habit also imparls a pecu- 
liar form and shade to tbe letters, nmki-s 
peculiar combinations, turns, shades, nsiH;, 
slope, height, crossing of I's, dots to the is, 
and a whole multitude of other pcciilinr 
characteristics, the great majority of which 
are unobserved by the writer him>.eir, 
and toavoid or conceal which wouldrequirc 
him to exercise a certain knowledge that 
he did not possess to avoid something he 
knew nothing:pf. 

It is tbe province of the expert by a clnse. 
keen analysis of writing, to discover these 
lial)itual peculiarities in the genuine, and 
trace ihcm in and through forged, disgui.^ed 
and simulated writings; strip them of 
their disguise, and reveal their true ident- 
ity as he would the persotl by removing a 

To be a reliable and skillful expert, tmc 
should possess great analytic power, an eye 
quick to perceive and trained to detect the 
slightest resemblances, or dissemblances in 
form or other habitual and distinguishing 
characteristics in writing, and above all, 
unapproachable integrity. 

Note.— In the next Issue of the Journal 
we shall give a carefully compiled digest 
with references tu tbe laws and rulings of 
tli««.-v.TtW-niirtc„f ibl- cnimtiyand Eng- 

Checks &c. Signed with a Stylographic 
Pen Refused. 

We are informed that several bankers 
of this city have refused to recognize the 
signature of their patrons when written 
with a " Stylographic Pon." That is cor- 
rect for all writing executed with these pens, 
is wanting in most of the essential and hab- 
itual characteristics of writing as when 
p\'-(iitcd with a two-nibbedpen. Whatever 
111 ilii ]in^ition of the pen or the degree of 



I ^:mir in qualily and size ; such writing not 
only lacks character, but is very easy of 
imitation or forgery. Upon the other baud, 
in writing, executed with the ordinary two- 
nibbed pen, tbe line is varied in quality and 
shade by the position of the pen and degree 
of pressure, angles and turns are modified 
and more sharply defined, thereby introduc- 
ing into writing the whole multitude of pe- 
culiar characteriatics that give character 
and personal identity to handwriting, and 
render it most difficult to imitate. 

Does It Pay ? 

A short time since several marked circulars 
and papers called our attention to the 
fact that two rival teachers aud professors 
of penmanship in one of our western cities 
were engaged in a lively and not very credit- 
iiiile (juarrel. Now, without taking sides 
with i-ilber, as we know nothing of tbe rel- 
ative merits of the case orlhe " combat- 
ants "except that both have been our pat- 
rons and have dealt honorably, we would ask 
how the balance stands as regards money 
and fame, or, in other words has it paid? 

We think that professors of penmanship, 
or anything else, should think twice before 
engaging in a pereonal quarrel, which, to a 
certain extent, must harass and tarnish 
each, while it reflects unfavorably upon the 
entire profession; make up, gentlemen, and 
rival each other only in good work and skill- 
ful teaching. 

Our New Premium. 
On the third page of this issue will be seen 
a print from a cut photo-eneraved from an 
original specimen of flourishing and let terlng 
28x48 inches in size, which we have photo- 
lithographed and printed upon a large sheet 
24 X 30, thereby making a large and elegant 
specimen, which will be given as a premi- 
um with the Journal to every subscriber 
renewing his subscription, and to each new 
subscriber during the year 1880. Should 
any one prefer the " Lord's Prayer " or the 
"Centennial Picture of Progress," <2ox28) 
they can have their so stating with 
their renewal of subscription, and all three 
by remitting fifty cents additional to the 
regular subscription. 


Be^in Subcriptions with the Volum 
ir will be rememlKTril ili;ii iln mM i-^sm' 
will licginnnewand fr 'M^' . ..hiin. i !iik 
.loniNAi,. Asfarasis pi.ii :ii ,.iili It I- ilr-ii- 
hMc that fiubscriptioiis >liuiiUl bci^iu wiili 
the vdlunif; suhscrilicrs will llRix-by nioiv 
rcndily kcipnccoiiut r.niu- of 
subscriplidiiK; and wlii-ie prcsfivef', the lilcs 
will be more coraplcic nod convenient for 
reference. Wc wish subscribers lo benr 
Ibis in mind, nut only in llie rertcwal of 
their own, but while suliciling the subsorip- 
tions of their frieudit. 

Subscriptions may begin (until further 
notice.) with any is^sue of the Joiiknal, 
since and in. lusive of No, (1. Vol. 1. (S.-pl.. 
1877). All Ilie tri-e„t,/-.^rrni imi-k iHiinbeis, 
ami the advance Lunibrrs for Vol. l\ . t/nrt.,/- 
nifi<- tiiinihn-K, will lie sent with a choice 
of cilluT the "Lord's Prayer" ov "Eagle" as 
premiums for $2.50; for «3.00 will be inclu- 
ded both those premiums, and a copy of the 
■ Centennial Picture of Progress," 20x28. 
The premiums alone are worlh the mou'-y 
jis liouaehold or school room picrures,and to 
any admirer of fine arlislic |umi work tliey 
arc utvh woilh rhe entire aiiiouni. 

\ Remirlcable Case of Alleged Forgery 
Within a few monihd n remarkable case 
involving forgery and fraud has been three 
times Iried in the courts of New Jersey. 
From (he evidence presented at the trials, it 
iippears that in 1873, A. D. Gibbons ex- 
c-li!ui.L;ed a farm in llaUway, \. J,, valued 
ill *30.nOl) with H. L. Potter for other pro- 
perty valued at $14,000, taking a mortgage 
upon the fann from Poller for the remain- 
ing .$Ifl.OO'>, which was reduced by subse- 
quent payments by the first day of Avtgust. 
1876, to $9,300, at which lime, as Gibbons 
alleged, a paynient of $300, to apply on 
ihe principal was made, and an endorsement 
entered n\wn Uie movlgage, and a duplicate 
receipt given for ihe Ninie; but upon the 
othei- liiiiid Pntler alleged that he paid 
$y,;jOO, which accords with the endorse- 
ment upon I lie mortgage and his dupli- 
cate receipt ; Gibbous s. ears that he le- 


■d. eleven fo 


op pi 

of onlv 


Id thai Ilic 

foracquittal. Ata subsequent trial, through 
the extraordinary effort of able counsel, who 
tried the case purely upon technicalities, 
Potter was acquitted of the crime of forgery.- 
The charge of fraud remains to be tried. 
The final decision of a case so remarkable 
will be watched with peculiar interest. We 
have iuRcrted above an excellent fac simile 
of the entire eodoreement. that our readers 
and brother expt-rts may apply their own 
skill to Ihe examination, and shall be pleased 
to know how far ihey may agree with us in 
our opinion as expressed above, regarding 
the same. 

Increased Kates for Adveitising-. 

Owing (othe lati^aly iiinta-^ed ■irculalion 
of the JncBNAL. herciifler the regular rales 
per line, single inscrliou, will be tweaiy 
cents; no adver'-isenieut received for less 


tinr duiii- M. 

s: Aflcr .he 

Shall I Renew my Subscription ? 

tlie eiulor- 
.' p»i( 

he question 
ion expires v 

Well, yes, of course you will, and f-et a 
friend or two to join you for a club. If you 
have any doubt about it. jtist read our pros- 
peetus-the names of promised contributors, 
consider Ihe premiums to be sent with the 
first number of the Jodonal— alone worth 
your money — and the twelve numbers of the 
JoDRNAi,. each to contain two or more fac- 
nimile specimens from the pens of our best 
pen artists, and its columns filled with a 
constant fund of information invaluable to 
you as a teacher, pupil, or lover of skillful 
penmanship — consider all these and say if 
you can afford, yourself not to renew, or 
fail to invite your friends lo subscribe. We 
shall anticipate your renewal, and hope for 
the club, 


Now is the time for our friends to secure 
large clubs for the Jouunat,; every writing 
teacher can easily secure a club from each 
of his classes and the greatest service he 
can do his pupils 
next to giving q 

Ihem a good 1^/ '^ . 
course of instruc- f*^ ^ 

and an eiidorscnieiit made acconliuglj , Gib- 
bons noliced that (be usual figures expres 
sive of Ihe sum had been omitted, und so 
passed the bond again lo Potter saying that 
he might as well add them Poller at once 
sesited himself and apparency did as re- 
quested, folded the bond carefully, and 
returned it to Gibbons, who, without exam- 
ining the same, deposiled il in the custom- 
ary place for safe keeping. 

Subsequently when called upon for fur- 
ther payments. Potter tendered lo Gibbons 
$1,000 with interest, as full payment for the 
mortgage which Gibbons refused, claiming 
$9,000 wiih interest. When Potter says, 
"you know I paid you $8,300 of the prin- 
cipal last August." "No," says Gibbons; 
•'you only paid $300,—" " I paid you 
$8,300," said Potter. " and my receipt and 
the endorsement upon the bond will prove 
it.'* Upon examining the endorsement on 
his bond, Mi'-Gibhons, to hissurpiise, found 
that it did read for " Eighty-Three Hundred 
Dollars," and that the figures which he had 
requested Potter lo add were still wanting. 
The following is a fac-simile copy of the cn- 
do'semcnt ns it now appears upon the bond: 

The Sevuiilh Principle or OipiUil Stem is 
a prominent feature of all the Capital letters 
we have yet to analyze. It consists of a left 
curve on main slant beginning three spaces 
from base line, and after continuing for 
one and one-half spaces downward, it joins 
a reversed oval, touching base line and ex- 
tending half the height of principle, termin- 
ating one-third space from descending line, 
and one and one-fourth spaces above base. 
Length of oval, two and one half spaces ; 
slant, fifteen degrees. 

The importance of this principle must not 
be overlooked, as in these lessons it will ap- 
pear in thirteen letters, or one-half the entire 
alphabet, and its use may be and frequently 
is extended to five other letters. We prefer, 
however, to thus limit its use, and will add 
thai several of the Ihirtcen letters may have 
other forms from which, in a business point 
of viiw. ihis principle may well be excluded; 

nil be 
indu(;e them to 
subscribe for tlio 
JouRNAi.; this is 
alsolrue of teach- 
ers in all the business colleges and public 
schools; they can not only secure the sub- 
scription of their pupils, but do them 
ft substantial favor. Read our premium 
list, and if nothing therein named is 
desired, send for our special list of cash 
premiums- don't lose sight of the clubs- 
Great, or small, let them cornel We repeat 
it, let them come'! 

Fermaneitt Ink 

is quite a consideration in all important 
documents. II. Triest & Co., Importers of 
Inks, No. 155 Fourth avenue. New York, 
have favored us with a bottle of their nut 
gall ink which is a strong black color, flows 
freely. ar.d is warranted to retain its color 
for any length of time. It appears to be a 
commendable ink for general business pur- 

Model Copy Books. 

The piibhshers of the model Copy Books 
with !>bdiDg copies inform us that these books 
are obtaiuiug great favor, and their success 
has been even beyond tUe large expectations 
with which they were first issued. 

We are glad to learu that this series is 
rapidly growing into popidar favor. i 


We arc pleaseii to uolc the growing pop- 
ularity of the practical writing lessons be- 
ing given through the columns of the Jour- 
nal by Professor Kelley, which is evidenced 
by the numerous applications for permission 
to reprint them by other educational publi- 

■rally accepted j 

Gibbo:is at once began proceedings for ! yet. as they are 
the foreclosure of his mortgage and the re- 1 s/((/(f/(irrf capitals, we give lliem i 
covery of $0,000 with interest. The case ''«tl course of lessons, believ i 
was ably tried before the Vice-Chancellor '«fisl' nothing so beautiful as 
of New Jersey, who rendered a decision in stem will be substituted therefor, 
favor of Gibbous. Besides the contradic- , y Capital li consists of Vttidfnt 

tory statements of the parties themselves, y"'^ '^, «to« ; united angularly at top to 
there could be but little evidence beyond | \ - ^t — a slight left curve, diverging 
thatof expert testimony. Being called in that i from it and continuing to base li 
capacity, we gave it as our decided convic- this left curve, at one and one fn 
tion that the word '" eighty " in the endorse- ■ from base.a left cur vi' iti-<-. n.Utl] 
meut did uol appear lo have been written j of a space, and crossin- ii'iniiii:ii 

that, at 


upper pc 


continuously and 

with the remainder of the endorsement. It 
had all the variations thai would naturally 
exist were the space it occupied left a blank 
and subsequently filled by the same person, 
under circumstances changed, and as repre- 
sented by Mr. Gibbons- The variation in 
itrcngth of line, spacing of letters, angle of , 
■lope, peculiar absence of parts of letlers, £ 
md the dot to the f, extension of the word uf 
beyond the marginal lino of the bond, the 
peculiar skip in the y as it crosses the p 
below, the marked difference in the whole 
general appearance of the word, the unnat- 
ural expression of the words " eighty -three 
hundred " In place of the more common 
" eight thousand, three hundred," and many 
other circumstances were named a^ indi. 
eating that the word " eighty" was written 
at another time and subsequent to the 
balance of the endorsement. 

Immediately subsequent to this trial 
Potter was indicted upon separate charges 
of forgery and fraud ; upon the first trial for 
forgery the jury disagreed, standing, as we 

line, one space to tln' i il^Im mI jh iii,i|,:ii |..|t 

midway between capit;d stem and right side 
of letter. Distance between points of con- 
tact with base line, one and two-thirds 

^~ Capital iV consists of the first 
— --^/^ two lines of A with the addi- 
L^V _^ tion by short turns at base line 
ascending two spaces to a 
point one space to right of second line. At 
half the height of letter the distances between 
lines, measured horizontally, are equal. 

The first and second lines 
ital 3/ are the same as 
Ihe third line uniting 
at bottom like third line of iV^ but extending 
with uniform curvature to a point three 
spaces from base line, and oncspace to right 
of capital stem. At Ibis point it unites an- 
gularly with descending left curve, touch- 
ing base line one space to right of preceding 
turn, and uniting by short turn to right 
curve, terminating at head line, one space to 
right of last curve. Distance between the 

lower turns and between last ctirve.o, each, 
one space ; distance between the four long 
lines, at half the height, one-third space, 

separate parts, a capital stem 
and a part called the caji. 
The cap should be made first, as correct 
proportions can moi'e easily be attained than 
by making the capital ptem first, and the 
time required in^making the letter in this 
order is much less. Begin two spaces from 
base line, with left curve ascending on main 
slant, one space : make short turn and con- 
tinue upward with left curve parallel to first 
and, crossing right curve near Ihe top. con- 
tinue to full height of letter, then change lo 
right curve, terminating four spaces to rigLj 
of point of beginning. The capital stem is 
modified by being shortened one-half space 
and by being curved more rapidly at top, 
the remaining portion being ihe same as in 
A. N. and M. Width of loop and spaces lo 
left and right, each one-third space. 
I ^^ ■— ' Form F precisely like T to 
\^ — -^ to the highest point of oval, 

N ^ then continue with horizon- 

iiil right curve to apoint. one-third space to 
right of capital stem and one and one-half 

s from ba 

^eline. then finish with slight 
inued- downward one-fourth 

Begin at base line with 
ascending right curve, con- 
tinuing two and ote-half 
spaces, and uniting angularly with capital 
stem, the upper portion of which is nearly 
straight, and the lower part unmodified. 
From a point three spaces from base line, 
and two spaces to right of capital stem, ex- 

nd leftc 



third spaces to right of oval. This line 
should be nearly straight in its lower por- 
tion. Finish by crossing as in A. Distance 
between points at lop, two spaces, between 
points of contact with base line one and two- 
Ihird spaces ; the space in capital stem oval 
above first right curve somewhat larger than 
that below. 

Tlif right curve and capital 

em in K are like those in 

r From a point three 

od two spaces to 

th left and right 

one and one-half 

where a small loop 

spaces from base lit 
right of stem dtsceni 

spaces from base lin 

.■should cross stem at right angli 

with a slight right and left curve descend to 

base line, touching it one and two-thirds 

spaces to right of stem, and by short turn 

unite with right curve terminating at head 

line, one space from preceding line. 

Oar London Agency. 

For tli.^ cniivcniencc uf the great number 

liciitiiii- Ml d. ii liiiirtin, we have estab- 
lislird .111 .iji iM> vv i(ii the well known In- 
iertr.rini,:ii \< u - rn.npany, 11 Bouverie St. 
{Flee! streii,) London, through whom the 
JouuNAi, or any of our publications may be 
safely and conveniently ordered; we hope 
thru liv to l;irgely increase our already nurc- 
111.11- li-i nt subscribers among our Britinh 
1 iiu^ II- Those who desire can continue to 

Reply to that Challenge. 
A lengthy article received fronlMr. H. M. 
Wllmotof Madison, Wis., in reply to Mr. 
Rathbun's article under the head of Chal- 
lenge in the November niimber has been 
omitted from this issue for want of space. 

Ames' Compendium. 


Hereafter this work will bo mailed on 
receipt of $4,50, It is universally con- 
ceded to be the most comprehensive and 
practical guide, in every department of ar 
tisfic and displayed pen work ever pub- 
lished. No penman seeking to excel in 
ornamental penmauf^hip can alTird lo be 
without it. 

Look out for the New Year's Number of 
the JouRNAi.,;it will be interesting. Those 
not subscribers, sliould send ten cents for 
a specimen copy. 


Alphabetical Index 



A BriUl.oi Fulare tor Sk.lin 

1 Pon 

ArcOood lvntoi.B«18i.dlert? 

AdTiM Requesting the EieouilOD of 

'" i?"ol'|^. """' "■"" ° 



Amee- Comi.ei.aiii.n or Oru.mont.l 

*"p1,'oS"",m'' ""'" °' °"'"°""" 

SnglfHd OrthOKrapby 

SluuienU of UuccesB — lecture 1 

SmlooDt PaumeD of Oldea Times, 1 

■nd SolPi]oe...Poetr7. 

BmrtVBgmce Id Lsngaage.. 
Experts in Hkodwrltiog 


remember!". . . *" °.^.'. '. '. '. 




erogly|)hio Auloffraphs. . 

An DnprectdcntL 



A JJoWograThics ' 

r Copying W 





Busy Pen. 


•irj,«« Col ege 
BiiTon e E j 


Oneolis, &c.. Signed with tbe Stylu- 

?l^l 11. 8^encei-by w"k iiooijVr. 

ClBHes in ReiidinKWrlOng."..'.'.'.".'.'.'.'. 


lauubip and Dn 
Jce^MskeB Purr 

jBophy of llie Alt oi W 
gripbflby (PaueocV) J 

TbeClevelauil C 




Tbe Funny SmBl 



Tbe Advnutagea 


he.. Educe. 



... Poetry, 

TbeComp eto Ac 



The Publie Need 

o.lneu Col. 



The OaelleoKe... 

kiog 8). 



Inese College 

The Sculptor Boy 

,;■-■ ■ 


The Pen ie Might 
Trsrelihg Teacbe 



^he P°°J«"e"o 



;. Spencer Poetry, 

. . Poetry, 

Frees Compiimeut^ to Ibc JounNAL. .. 
ParugraphB Appropriated Kelley, 

Beadlngand Writing in Pu 


RareundSiieeial PremluMiB 

Kenewal of Subc^cripliuux 

Remlnlecenoes of J. b. W 
Reporting by Uaohinery. . 
Boll of tbe Convention. . . . 

Something of B Village. . 
Skilled Penmanship. . . . 

e KngllBl. AnKUlai 

e of the JouB^AI... 

Unity and SlmpUolty ol Form la 

Unparalluled Progre^a of Writing Dur- 
ing tup PiiBt Twentj -Ave Yeare. . , 

Volume One of tbe JotmNAL 

Vagaries lu Writing 

VanqtilBlimg ft Book Agent 

Wtlllng LesaoD, No, 1..D. F. Eelley. 

Writing In th 
Writing VuHori 

IH...1.1.-.1 li.B..i= liutjtiiaaEudB, 



Fl b d Sp in 

M\' E«c: 


L s of Peume S pp Ma ed for 
24 cts n P ag S an p 

Ba k. lumbers 
\Vi- still liiivc remniniDga few of all the 
Ijtifk immbcTs of tUc Jouunal since and 
iuclusivc of lilt- SuplL'inbev number, 1877, 
(wfiiti/scirn up to ruluinefour, which will be 
sent with dl/icr ibu "Lord's Prayer" or 
■' Eagle " as a premium for $1.50; both pre- 
miums and the " Ccntcunial Picture of 
Progress" for $2.00. 

From the Press. 

Forged, Disguiwd &Anonymoua Writing 


Ttequlresan JonrnalEzlDK or JoiirLal EDirtes. 
Provides a Unirnrm Metfaodof pruitice. 

Ilnlly ExblbilM, 

The Copy-Books 


:F' XJ T XJ n. 3E3 - 

The Primary Copy Hooks, Model Serie 


Since it has been demonstrated that a 
moviible cop;/ is entirely practicable, no Se- 
ries of Copy-Hooks will be acceptable here- 
afttir witbout this provision. Wakeman's 
Patent Sliding Copies provide this important 
reijiiisite by a simple and convenient meth- 
od of applying detached copies to each page 
of the book. 

The copies are all engraved in the most 
approved style, and arranged in easy, pro- 
gressive exercises. The method of teaching 
recommended is wholly ay?ithetic\ worda and 
compute letters are given for practice at the 
outset, and the forms of letttrs are taught 
essentially as obiect lessons. 

To those desiring simplicity and a rational 
treatment of this subject for primary work 
which wiU insure rapid and permanent pro- 
gress, this Bcries of Copy-Books is especially 

The Model Copy-Books 

(Goodman's Patent). Revised and Improved. 
They have movable copies, the superior 
advantages of which are too obvious to be 
disputed ; they insure rapid improvement at 
every stage of the pupil's practice ; they 
make instruction in the subject of penman- 
ship easy, practical, and invariably success- 
ful ; they supply a complete course of prac- 
tical penmanship in six books. They 
rapidly c ' ' ' 

first supplie 

D. APPLETON & CO., Pnlillsliers, 

Penman! Peninan!! 


What Everybody Wants. 

t la & splendid «lgtit p 

e Ceutenulal Pi 
6 Lord's Prayei 

r ProgreBi, 'JSxiO li 

reseotlDg rrofess- 
riictive«iidUor " ' 

■kntM' ilagoMitK. 

n exceed Lugly 
il ■peclmei 

:di, ISdoBtgue 


306 B load way. ] 




Common School Eait.ou siurIo aud douIjIc 

Dud Sluglo 
a OoUogoe. 

Not a Revision, but an Entirely 

Stud at once yoiir uildiesH aui 



retiiTO mail our New Prioe Lis 



of Cards of Every Description. 

Great Discoiit in Prices, 

Our Sample Sheet of New Year's Cards 
sent to any address. Acknowledged by all 
to be the Beet in the Market. 

Sample Package of 25, assorted O K(', 
desigo, ^O 

N. E. CARD CO., 



Le Cedur Rapids Bu 
ox HS6, Cedar Rnpide 





Samplea. 18 cti. W: 
Kingston , 





of copies of BuBluesa 


Ir, Ohio 





hij> DtpaHment for I 

College, ruiliideliilita, 

,Jp:^'t " — 

Butiiieu r«nmaiuliip taught by Messrs. Prickett an 
UruqualUd advantiffM. Circulars free. 
lO-iat ' J. E. SOULE. 

Let tie Eagle Screai 




Lettefing Tablet! 


' letier is roriiicd coiupleiet aud iin 

The Analytical Alphabet 

As a Self-Instructor. 

'orj reapectfully, 
PAINE, Com. ofPateuU. 

Vlilreaa B. W. EL1.8AVORTH, 





Bead tbe following opiulona from peumeD ' 

utility caauot < 
, DesDevilte, ^ 

FOR f*AI.K.-.\ Bu-iiicsi) Cllege.estubllfiheJ o?ei 




Accounts, with Arithmetical Problems, 


Stimpson's U. S. Treasury Gold Pens. 

-.-It 2 

5 Broadway, New Yorh. 

12 CAKD8 wltu uame 

ritti'D, 15 ot«. Samplcp, 6 
t. BogcrsvlUe, Tub Co., 0, 


oesa College" MANCHe"' 

A fully written OQ flue 
LOW, SprlngTille. N, Y. 


Useful Instruments 

t of mauiifacture. 

or gettiUKcurvei 
atera i, %', %, ; 

u belgbt rcgi>ccllvi'ly, ] 
[aple Siraigbl l^ilgo. one edge beveled, 

Ornamental Engrossing 

And over.V deBoriptlon of P«u Work esL-cuted. 8ei 
Lttbo^rapbed Bphelmeua tieul fiT 35 ct«. 

Special Offer, 

I will seud to any addreea aecnrely packed fn 
strong lualling tube a Bpeuim n of ray ver^ bttt Flat 

cimen you aeot mo wliile In Brooklya 
PiiiF. E. A. CBli^DLB[l, Banbury, Mai 


«. ■W. KIHBK, 




llJteSXGA'S . i 

Evtry Vanety of Pen Work Piomptly Executed in the Most Perfect Man ler 
Also Counsel given as Expert on Hand Writing and Accounts 



iploi,i,i, anil fivf 

>^\^i\\VV\«S\\\^A\;.W<i 'i'WLW <LV.K?S,^ 


p Series of 

bcHnniL PEN5 f 1 

'^^opi/,Af>sTtr/-lP^/vs/M use ' ' 


By ordering from ub, patrons can rely not only 
upon ret^lving a Buperior article, but upon doing bo 
Anica' Compendium of Ornamental PoumanBhlp, 1 BO 

1 doz. o» bottles fancy c 

olored ink 

ent by 

\VhIt''e Ink, per bottle, by e«p 


David 8 Japan Inh, per pint 1 
Prepared India Ink, per bolt 

Ottle. by exp 
e, by expres 


EngroBBiug Peue for le 
Crow Qimi Pen, ver.» fl 


;e, by mail, $1. Libem 



York, and ] 

» of Ne?~ 

Iitililk- BUil private Ecboola, i 
in Ity S. ^. PAoiwnD of I . 
I. Bryant, Chicago. Price, \fj ] 

now ready for use, and will be 
ex'euBive and thorough tr 
lccouuIs yet publibhed. 

inmrovt-ment unou the ol 

do the 


Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., 

io'i in Bl 

a Blmoet 

d bigh Bohoola 

i-w Vork. 






of eijiorience, aUuaUoo K 
...a bo t toUng, UUiei l) 


' ^'12 




nee— tli ee In a PooaaylVMil» 
iin iufiuince patronage. Bait 
il requited. Addroaa, J, Ou 

I)— A posltig 

a ae teacher of penmanrUp In 
erarySihool. Can give Inatra©- 

uafldd. Ohio. ' "iWt 


The American Centennial. 

A Pen Drawing. Tht 

Ivopy American should 

OxSaTnche^r price 
lountlng. Addrei 

al Ex- 
tol Ul 

tor, Mr. t 
. APictOiUl 
ine huudced 
jg pictures, 

Iiuvo one.belug of especial valae 
interesled n pen work. Slxe. 
from sa tc 13, acuordlng to 



OfBuprrtor ENGL